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COURSES ALLOCATION IN SEMESTERS

1ST SEMESTER

             
Course Title
Compulsory/Εlective Code Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
             

General Mathematics

Compulsory

106

5 Hrs/Wk

-

5

5.0

Inorganic Chemistry

Compulsory

104

3 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

4

5.0

Introduction to Biology

Compulsory

101

3 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

4

6.5

Introductory Botany

Compulsory

103

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

7.0

Organic Chemistry

Compulsory

105

5 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

6

7.0

 

DETAILED COURSES CONTENT OF FIRST SEMESTER

GENERAL MATHEMATICS

Compulsory/Elective
Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 106 1st 5 Hrs/Wk - 5 5.0
Syllabus:
 
 

Analytic Geometry (4 Hours): Scalar and vector products of vectors. Straight line. Conic sections. Analytic geometry in 3-D space. Applications.

Linear Algebra (4 Hours): Elements of algebraic structures. Vector spaces (in particular R2 and R3). Matrices-determinants. Linear systems. Applications.

Differential and Integral Calculus (20 Hours): Concept of limit. Concept of derivative. Fundamental theorems of differential calculus. Investigations of functions (maxima-minima, monotonicity, convexity-concavity, asymptotes, etc). L'Hospital rules. Taylor's formula. Applications.Taylor.

Indefinite Integrals (4 Hours): Basic methods of Integration. Integration of rational functions, certain irrational expressions, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions, transcendental functions.

Definite Integrals (6 Hours): The lower and upper integral sums (according Darboux and Riemann). Integrable functions. Properties, theorems. Applications (finding average values of a function, computing areas, etc).

Elements of functions with several real variables (6 Hours): Partial derivatives. Differential. Differentiation of composite functions. Applications (gradient, etc).

Ordinary differential equations (6 Hours): First order differential equations. Exact differential equations. Linear differential equations with constant coefficients. Linear differential equations of second order with constant coefficients.

 
Lecturers:
 
  A. Kontogeorgis Associate Professor, Faculty of Mathematics, Department of Algebra & Geometry
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: General Mathematics
Author: Anastasios Kartsaklis
Publisher: Arakinthos Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2005
ISBN: 960-91034-3-Χ
 
Title: SCHAUM'S Differential and Integral Calculus (4th edition)
Author: Frank Ayres, Elliot Mendelson
Publisher: Klidarithmos Publishing Ltd.
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2008
ISBN: 978-960-461-113-3
 
Notes:
 
   
 

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Compulsory/Elective
Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 104 1st 3 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 4 5.0
Syllabus:
 
 

The components of matter-Quantum theory and atomic structure (4 Hours) - Chemical periodicity (4 Hours) - Models of Chemical Bonding (5 Hours) - Gases and the kinetic-molecular theory. Intermolecular forces: liquids, solids and phase changes (2 Hours) - Thermochemistry: energy flow and chemical change (3 Hours) - Chemical Kinetics: rates and mechanisms (4 Hours) - Properties of mixtures. Solutions and colloids. Acid-Base equilibrium (2 Hours) - Principles of oxidation-reduction reactions. Electrochemistry - Electrical work (4 Hours) - Principles of spectroscopy: UV/Vis, IR, NMR, X-ray diffraction analyses (4 Hours) - Study of the oxygen group, carbon group and nitrogen group. Transition metals as essential dietary trace elements (4 Hours) - Coordination compounds. Theoretical basis of the bonding and properties of complexes (3 Hours)

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Laboratory safety rules. Basic laboratory techniques. The use of the laboratory balance. Experimental errors. Evaluation of experimental data. The laboratory report. 2. Preparation and density measurements of solutions. 3. Principles of chemical Equilibrium. Le Chatelier/s principle. 4. Salt solubility. The solubility constant concept. 5. pH – Investigation of buffer systems. pKa. 6. Complexation measurements. Determination of water hardness. 7. Thermochemistry: The heat of reaction. 8. Oxidation - Reduction titrations. Standard half-cell potential. Nernst equation. Laws of electrolysis. 9. Chemical Kinetics. Rates of reactions.

 
Lecturers:
 
  Athinoula L. PetrouAssociate Professor, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Inorganic ChemistryPanayotis Kyritsis, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Inorganic Chemistry - Nikolaos Psaroudakis, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Inorganic Chemistry
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Basic Inorganic Chemistry
Author: N. Klouras
Publisher: Travlos Publishing
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2005 
ISBN: 960-7122-27-5
 
Title: Basic Principles of Inorganic Chemistry
Authors: G. Pnevmatikakis, Ch. Mitsopoulou, K. Methenitis
Publisher: Stamoulis Publications
Publication Place & Year: Αthens, 2006
ISBN: 960-351-664-3
 
Notes:
 
 

Knowledge is assessed via examination in theory and practical work (laboratory reports, essays, tests, oral communication or a combination of the above). The mark of the practical work contributes 50% to the final mark Passing marks on both examinations are required.

 

INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective
Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 101 1st 3 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 4 6.0
Syllabus:
 
 

The Science of Biology - Βasic Properties of Life  (1 Hour): Cellular Base of Life. Relation of Structure and Function.

The Origin and evolution of Life (2 Hours): Theories of Origin and Evolution of Life. Darwinism. Aviogenesis Theory. Simple organic molecules - Polymers. Catalytic properties of RNA.

The Chemistry of Life (2 Hours): Atoms, bonds and simple molecules. The biological importance of water. Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids..

Energy and Metabolism (2 Hours): Forms of Energy - Energy Transformations. The Laws of Thermodynamics. Free Energy, ATP and cellular work. Enzymes, Enzyme Activation Energy. Cofactors, Inhibitors and Metabolism control.

Eukaryotic Cells - Structure and Function (7 Hours): Cell Theory. Introduction to principal methods used to study cells. Biological Membranes: Structure and Function. Mitochondrion: Cellular Respiration. Chemiosmosis and the production of ATP. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). Golgi Apparatus. Lysosomes. Peroxisomes. Cell Nucleus. Cytoskeleton.

Cell Cycle and Cell Division (2 Hours): Mitosis. Meiosis. Regulators of Cell Cycle Progression.

Procaryotic microorganisms (2 Hours): Bacteria: Bacterial Conjugation. Viruses, Viral Growth: Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles. DNA and RNA Phages.

DNA, the genetic material (2 Hours): DNA Structure - Replication.

From Nucleic acids to Proteins (5 Hours): RNA synthesis (Transcription). Protein Synthesis (Translation), The Genetic Code.

Mutations (2 Hours): Types of mutations. Mutational Agents and DNA damage, DNA repair.

Introduction to Genetics (3 Hours): Mendelian Laws. Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance. Genetic recombination. Gene mapping.

Recombinant DNA Technology (3 Hours): Restriction enzymes, Cloning. DNA vectors. Selection of transformed cells. Study of Human Genome and Modern Medicine. Subjects of Moral Safety.

Topics on ecology (6 Hours): The Science of Ecology. Hierarchical levels of Ecological Studies. The Biosphere - structure of the biotic component. The Biodiversity of Planet Earth. Adaptations of organisms to the major environmental factors (light, temperature, salinity…).

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Light microscopy. 2. Cell Division: Mitosis - Meiosis. 3. Cellular Respiration - Fermentation. 4. Isolation of DNA. 5. Blood types. 6. Ecology: Plant adaptations to the environmental factors. Animal adaptations to environmental factors.

 
Lecturers:
 
  P. Kollia Assistant Professor of Human Molecular Genetics, Department of Genetics & BiotechnologyS. Kouyanou - Koutsoukou Associate Professor of Molecular & Developmental Genetics, Department of Genetics & Biotechnology - V. N. Kouvelis Lecturer of Genetics & Biotechnology, Department of Genetics & Biotechnology - Μ. Arianoutsou - Faragitaki Professor of Ecology & Terrestrial Ecosystems, Department of Ecology & Systematics
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Biology - Volume I, 1st Edition
Authors: Campell N., Reece J. et.al.
Publisher: FORTH - University of Crete Press
Publication Place & Year: Heraklion, 2010
ISBN: 978-960-524-306-7
 
Title: Basic Principles of Cell Biology - Volume I
Authors: Albberts, Bray, Hopkin, Johnson, Lewis, Raff, Roberts, Walter
Publisher: Paschalidis Medical Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2006
ISBN: 960-399-389-1
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Biology Laboratory Manual
Authors: S. Kouyanou - Koutsoukou, P. Kollia, V. Kouvelis
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2010
 
Notes:
 
  Combined written examination for both, theoretical and practical sections. The mark of the practical work contributes 30% to the final mark and the mark of the theory examination contributes 70%.
 

INTRODUCTORY BOTANY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 103 1st 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 6.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction (2 Hours): Subject, aims and importance of Botany. Origin and evolution of plants. Economic importance of plants. Directions of Botanical science.

Plant cell (10 Hours): a) Structure and organization of plant cells, with emphasis in their differences from animal cells. b) Cell cycle.

Introduction to Plant Molecular Biology (2 Hours)

Structure and reproduction of  (12 Hours): Bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, bryophytes, lower vascular plants, gymnosperms.

Histology of vascular plants (12 Hours): Structure, origin, differentiation and function of epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, secretory and vascular tissues, and idioblast cell types.

Plant organs (12 Hours): Morphology, internal organization, development and function of root, stem, leaf, flower, seed, fruit and seedling.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Plant cell - plastids. 2. Vacuolar system - water relations - cytoplasmic inclusions. 3. Structure and organization of the cell wall. 4. Parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma. 5. Epidermis, secretory tissue. 6. Vascular tissue. 7. Anatomy of stem. 8. Anatomy of leaf and root. 9. Anatomy of flower, seed, fruit. 10. Structure and reproduction of bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi. 11. Structure and reproduction of algae. 12. Structure and reproduction of bryophytes.

 
Lecturers:
 
  P. Apostolakos Professor of Plant Morphology - Β. Galatis Professor of Plant Cell Biology - Histology, Anatomy & Plant Body Differentiation - Ch. Katsaros Professor of Plant Structure & Development - Phycology - Ν. Christodoulakis Associate Professor of Plant Anatomy - Κ. Haralampidis Assistant Professor of Molecular Plant Development.
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Introduction to Botany
Authors: B. Galatis, P. Apostolakis, Ch. Katsaros
Publisher: Stamoulis Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 1998
ISBN: 960-351-049-1
 
Title: Plants in the Laboratory - Laboratory Exercise Guide
Author: N. Christodoulakis
Publisher: Perpinias Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2010
ISBN: 978-960-7390-03-5
 
Title: Botany: Structure, Function & Plant Biology
Author: Ι. Τsekos
Publisher: Kyriakidis Bros.
Publication Place & Year: Salonika, 2005
ISBN: 978-960-343-576-1
 
Title: Botany: Plant Morphology and Anatomy - Volume I
Author: Α. Bozampalidis
Publisher: University Studio Press
Publication Place & Year: Salonika, 2011
ISBN: 978-960-12-2047-5
 
Title: Plant Morphology and Anatomy
Author: S. Delivopoulos
Publisher: Aikaterini Simoni Publications
Publication Place & Year: Salonika, 1994
ISBN: 960-317-015-1
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Introduction to Botany - Laboratory Exercises
Authors: Department of Botany Academic Staff
Publication Place: Athens,
Publication Year: -
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical examination contributes 50% to the final mark Passing marks on both theoretical and practical examinations are required.
 

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 105 1st 5 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 6 7.0
Syllabus:
 
 

Purification and analysis of organic compounds (1 Hour) - Molecular representations, classification and systematic nomenclatur (2 Hours) - Electronic theories (3 Hours) - Stereochemistry (4 Hours) - Classification of reagents and reactions. General Mechanisms (4 Hours) - Spectroscopic methods (3 Hours) - Saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons (1 Hour) - Unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons (2 Hours) - Cyclic hydrocarbons and their derivatives (2 Hours) - Alkyl halides (2 Hours) - Esters of anorganic acids (1 Hour) - Organometallic compounds (1 Hour) - Alcohols - Ethers (2 Hours) - Carbonyl compounds (4 Hours) - Sulfur compounds - Nitrogen compounds (5 Hours) - Carboxylic acids and their derivatives (3 Hours) - Aromatic character (2 Hours) - Benzene and their homologs (3 Hours) - Aromatic compounds with oxygen and sulfur (2 Hours) - Nitrogen containing aromatic compounds (2 Hours) - Carbonyl and carboxylic aromatic compounds (3 Hours) - Fused aromatic compounds - naphtalene (3 Hours) - Heterocyclic compounds (thiophene, furan, pyrrole, imidazole, pyrimidine, quinoline, purine) (4 Hours) - Carbohydrates (4 Hours) - Lipids (2 Hours) - Aminoacids - Proteins (2 Hours)

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Qualitative Organic Analysis 2. Separatory methods and purification of organic compounds 3. Purification and separation of liquid compounds 4. Classification tests of functional groups (double bond, alkyl halides, alcohols) 5. Aldehydes, ketones - carboxylic acids - hydroacids - dicarbonic acids 6. Amines - Phenols - Preparation of acetylsalicylic acid 7. Urea - proteins aminoacids 8. Carbohydrates.

 
Lecturers:
 
  Th. Mavromoustakos Associate Professor, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemical Technology, Food Chemistry, Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry - V. Magrioti Lecturer, Faculty of Chemistry, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry - Practicals: Ch. Τzougraki Professor, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Organic Chemistry, Organic Chemical Technology, Food Chemistry, Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Organic Chemistry - Volume I
Author: John ΜcMurry
Publisher: FORTH - University of Crete Press
Publication Place & Year: Heraklion, 2010
ISBN: 978-960-524-055-4
 
Title: Organic Chemistry - Volume II
Author: John ΜcMurry
Publisher: FORTH - University of Crete Press
Publication Place & Year: Heraklion, 2009
ISBN: 978-960-524-056-1
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Organic Chemistry: Laboratory Manual for Faculty of Biology
Authors: Gimisis A., V. Theodorou, M. Liapis, S. Mylonas, V. Ragoussis, Ch. Tzougraki
Publication Place: Athens,
Publication Year: -
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical examination contributes 30% to the final mark
 

2ND SEMESTER

             
Course Title Compulsory/Εlective Code Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
             

Analytical Chemistry

Compulsory

205

3 Hrs/Wk

4 Hrs/Wk

4

5.0

Biochemistry I

Compulsory

201

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

7.0

Physics

Compulsory

204

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

5.0

Plant Taxonomy & Biosystematics

Compulsory

206

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

7.0

Zoology I

Compulsory

102

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

7.0

 

DETAILED COURSES CONTENT OF SECOND SEMESTER

ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 205 2nd 3 Hrs/Wk 4 Hrs/Wk 4 5.0
Syllabus:
 
 

Basic concepts of chemistry equilibria: Introduction to chemical analysis (1 hour). Solutions and their concentration units (3 Hours). Acids, bases, pH and buffer solutions. Equilibria of complex ions. Oxidation - Reduction Systems and electrochemical cells (4 hours).

Errors and statistical treatment of analytical data (2 Hours).

Gravimetric analysis (2 Hours): Solubility. Precipitation. Introduction to gravimetric methods.

Volumetric analysis (6 Hours): Acid-base titrations. Precipitation titrations. Complexometric titrations. Oxidation - Reduction titrations. Acid - base titrations in non-aqueous Solvents.

Introduction to Instrumental Analysis. Potentiometry (3 Hours): Indicator and Reference Electrodes. Ion-, gas- and enzyme- sensing membrane electrodes. Instruments measuring potential - pH. Direct Potentiometry and Potentiometric Titrations. Electrolytic Methods: Electrogravimetric Analysis, Coulometry. Voltammetry: Polarography, Amperometric titrations.

Optical methods of Analysis. Absorption Spectroscopy (4 Hours): Principles of Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy. UV-VIS spectrophotometers. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Fluorimetry. Chemiluminescence (Instrumentation and Analytical Applications).

Atomic Spectroscopy - Instrumentation and Analytical Applications (3 Hours). Emission Spectroscopy: Flame Emission photometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy. Atomic- Absorption Spectroscopy.

Introduction to separation methods (4 Hours): Extraction. Ion Exchange. Paper Chromatography and Thin Layer Chromatography. Gas Chromatography. Liquid Column Chromatography. High - Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Affinity Chromatography. Ion Chromatography. Electrophoresis.

Special Instrumental Methods of Analysis (4 Hours): Enzymatic Analysis. Immunoassays. Mass Spectrometry (MS). Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1-3. Volumetric Methods of Analysis: Volumetric determination of acetic acid in vinegar (neutralization). Volumetric determination of acetic aid in aqueous solutions and in vitamin C tablets (iodometry). Volumetric determination of water hardness (complexometric). 4-6. Instrumental Methods of Analysis: Separation and Identification of Metal Ions (Ni, Mn and Co) with Ascending Paper Chromatography. Spectrophotometric determination of iron. Potentiometric determination of fluoride with a fluoride membrane electrode in aqueous solutions and in toothpaste.

 
Lecturers:
 
 

Ε. Lianidou, Associate Professor, Faculty of Chemistry, Dept. of Theoretical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Inorganic Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, Instrumentation & Chemical Engineering - Η. Archontaki, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Chemistry, Dept. of Theoretical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Inorganic Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, Instrumentation & Chemical Engineering. Practicals: Ε. Bakeas, Lecturer, Faculty of Chemistry, Dept. of Theoretical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Inorganic Analysis, Instrumental Analysis, Instrumentation & Chemical Engineering - Μ. Ntouskou, Teaching Assistant.

 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Quantitative Analysis
Authors: Th. Hatziioannou, A. Kalokairinos, M. Timotheou-Potamia
Publisher: Th. Hatziioannou, A. Kalokairinos, M. Timotheou-Potamia
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2006
ISBN: 960-90061-4-0
 
Title: Instrumental Analysis
Authors: Th. Hatziioannou, M. Koupparis
Publisher: Th. Hatziioannou, M. Koupparis
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2003
ISBN: 960-220-750-7
 
Title: Basic Principles of Analytical Chemistry
Author: D. Themelis
Publisher: Pelagia Ziti Publications
Publication Place & Year: Salonika, 2007
ISBN: 960-456-068-9
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Course Notes
Authors: Ε. Lianidou, H. Archontaki
Publication Place: Athens
 
Publication Year: 2012
 
Title: Laboratory Exercises
Author: Faculty of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Lab - Edited by H. Archontaki
Publication Place: Athens
 
Publication Year: 2011
 
Notes:
 
  The laboratory mark contributes with 25% to the total course mark. Only students that have finished successfully the laboratory experiments (with a mark 5/10) have the right to participate in the course final exam.
 

BIOCHEMISTRY I

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 201 2nd 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 6.5
Syllabus:
 
 

History and Applications of Biochemistry (1 Hour) - Amino-acids. Chemical composition - Isolation (1 Hour) - Peptides (Amino acid sequence determination) (1 Hour) - General principles of protein structure (1 Hour) - Levels of protein organization and folding (3 Hours) - Methods of protein purification and characterization (2 Hours) - Enzyme chemical nature (1 Hour) - Enzyme action - Mechanism - Enzyme activity modulators (4 Hours) - Principles of enzyme kinetics (3 Hours) - Enzyme classification and nomenclature (1 Hour) - Lysozyme mechanism of action - Carboxypeptidase - Ribonuclease (4 Hours) - Coenzymes. Prosthetic groups (2 Hours) - Coenzymes used in oxidation/reduction reactions (2 Hours) - Transport of chemical groups - Energetics (2 Hours) - Adenosine triphosphate as coenzyme in group transfer (2 Hours) - Nucleic acids - structure and function (3 Hours) - Biosynthesis of nucleotides - Regulation (4 Hours) - Recombinant DNA - Cloning (2 Hours) - DNA Replication (3 Hours) - Transcription (3 Hours) - Post-transcriptional regulation (2 Hours) - Translation (3 Hours) - Post-translational regulation (2 Hours).

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. pH. pH indicators. Preparation of buffer solutions. Amino acid titration curves. 2. Photometry. 3. Amino-acids. 4. Proteins. 5. Enzymes. 6. Enzyme Kinetics.

 
Lecturers:
 
  D. Vassilacopoulou Associate Professor in Biochemistry of Eukaryotic Organisms - E. G. Fragoulis Professor of Biochemistry
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Biochemistry Topics - Vol. I
Author: E. G. Fragoulis
Publisher: Litsas Medical Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2003
ISBN: 960-372-071-2
 
Title: Biochemistry Topics - Vol. II
Author: E. G. Fragoulis
Publisher: Litsas Medical Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2003
ISBN: 960-372-071-B
 
Title: Karlson Biochemistry and Pathobiochemistry
Authors: P. Karlson, D. Doenecke, J. Koolman, G. Fuchs, W. Gerok
Publisher: Litsas Medical Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2010
ISBN:  
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Biochemistry I - Laboratory Manual
Author: D. C. Sideris
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 1996
 
Notes:
 
  Theory and practicals are examined together.The mark of the practical examination contributes 20% to the final mark.
 

PHYSICS

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 204 2nd 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 5.0
Syllabus:
 
 

Mechanics (10 Hours): Forces, Kinetics, Work and Energy, Potential and Kinetic Energy, Conservation of Energy, Momentum, Collisions, Rockets, Rotations, Rotational Momentum and Torque, Equilibrium, Elasticity, Gravity, Fluids, Bernoulli equation, Oscillations.

Wave Physics - Optics (12 Hours): Wave motion, Standing waves, Reflection, Refraction, Huygens principle, Interference, Spectra, Mirrors and Lenses, Lasers.

Thermodynamics (8 Hours): Temperature, Heat, Work, First thermodynamic Law, Kinetic theory, Second thermodynamic Law, Carnot's cycle, Heat machines, Refrigerators, Entropy.

Electromagnetism (8 Hours): Electrical charge, Electric Fields, Gauss' Law, Electrical Potential, Faraday's Law of Induction, Ampere's Law, Maxwell Equations, Alternating Currents.

Nuclear Physics (10 Hours): Atom and Nucleus, Radioactivity, Fission, Fusion, Atomic weapons, Nuclear Plants, Biological effects of radiation, Geiger.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Focal length of a lens. 2. Study of light spectra. 3. Laser and light diffraction. 4. Light polarization. Measurement of the molarity of a sugar solution. 5. Study of AC currents with an oscilloscope. 6. Geiger. 7. Measurement of the acceleration of gravity with a simple pendulum. 8. Hooke's law. 9. Electrical resistance measurement with the Wheatstone bridge. 10. Internal friction of fluids.

 
Lecturers:
 
  D. Theodorou Assistant Professor, Faculty of Physics, Department of Solid State Physics - Ch. Symeonidis Assistant Professor Faculty of Physics, Department of Solid State Physics.
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: University Physics - Vol. I: Mechanical Thermodynamics
Author: Young Hugh D.
Publisher: Papazisis Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 1994
ISBN: 978-960-02-1067-5
 
Title: University Physics - Vol. II: Electromagnetism - Optics - Modern Physics
Author: Young Hugh D.
Publisher: Papazisis Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 1994
ISBN: 978-960-02-1088-0
 
Title: Physics for Scientsts and Engineers - Vol. I: Mechanics
Author: R. Serway - Translated by L. K. Resvanis
Publisher: L. K. Resvanis
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 1990
ISBN: 978-960-92638-1-8
 
Title: Physics for Scientsts and Engineers - Vol. II: Electromagnetism
Author: R. Serway - Translated by L. K. Resvanis
Publisher: L. K. Resvanis
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 1990
ISBN: 978-960-7258-75-5
 
Notes:
 
   
 

PLANT TAXONOMY AND BIOSYSTEMATICS

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 206 2nd 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 6.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Basic concepts and principles of Taxonomy and Biosystematics (2 Hours): Main terms and concepts. The necessity of Taxonomy.

The progress in Taxonomy (2 Hours): Systems of Taxonomy. Classic and new taxonomic systems.

Taxonomic sources (6 Hours): Structural information. Chemical information. Molecular information. Information from Plant Geography and Ecology.

Taxonomy in practice (7 Hours): Classification. Taxonomic tools and implementation (Identification Keys, Codes of Nomenclature, Herbaria, Plant Genetic Resources, Culture Collections, Databases).

Biodiversity (5 Hours): Evolution. Speciation. Major groups of organisms related to plants.

Prokaryotic organisms (4 Hours): Morphology, reproduction, taxonomic criteria, systematics, phylogeny, ecology. Representative families, genera and species.

Eukaryotic algae (5 Hours): Morphological characters, reproduction, taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology, representative genera.

Fungi - Lichens (4 Hours): Morphological characters, reproduction, taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology, representative genera.

Bryophyta and Pteridophyta  (5 Hours): Morphology, reproduction, taxonomic characters, systematics, phylogeny and ecology of the higher taxonomic categories (division, subdivision, class, subclass).

Spermatophyta: Gymnospermae - Angiospermae (12 Hours): Morphology, reproduction, taxonomic characters, systematics, phylogeny and ecology of the higher taxonomic categories (division, subdivision, class, subclass). Representative genera.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Taxonomic tools and their use. 2. Prokaryotic organisms, diatoms, dinoflagellates: morphological characters of representative genera under light microscope. 3. Chlorophyta, Charophyta, Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyta. Morphological characters of representative genera under light microscope and stereoscope. 4. Fungi-Lichens. Macro- and microscopic characters and identification of representative genera in the main groups. 5. Bryophyta, Pteridophyta. Observation and identification of characteristic representatives. 6. Gymnospermae. Observation and identification of characteristic representatives. 7. Angiospermae. Taxonomic characters (flowers, inflorescences, fruits). Survey of Dicotyledones and Monocotyledones (comparative morphology). Observation and identification of characteristic representatives, use of identification keys. 8. Angiospermae. Use of identification keys in representative Angiosperms. 9. Angiospermae. The karyotype as a taxonomic tool, chromosome preparations of Angiosperms. - Field Work: Collection and identification of representative plants.

 
Lecturers:
 
  Th. Constantinidis Assistant Professor of Systematic Botany - Α. Pantazidou Associate Professor in Systematics & Ecology of Prokaryotic Organisms - Ε. Kapsanaki - Gotsi Assistant Professor of Systematics & Ecology of Fungi - Ζ. Gonou - Zagou Lecturer of Systematics & Ecology of Fungi
 

 

Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics
Author: C.A. Stace, Edited by A. Economou - Amilli
Publisher: Vivliopolis
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2003
ISBN: 960-87714-0-4
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Lessons of Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics
Authors: Yannitsaros A., Kapsanaki - Gotsi Ε, Koumpli - Sovantzi L, Economou - Amilli Α, Rousomoustakaki Μ.
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2004
 
Title: Laboratory Exercises of Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics
Authors: Yannitsaros Α, Danielidis D, Kapsanaki - Gotsi Ε, Koumpli L, Pantazidou Α, Rousomoustakaki Μ.
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2007
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical work contributes 25% to the final mark and the mark of the theory examination contributes 75%. Passing marks on both examinations are required.
 

ZOOLOGY I

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 102 2nd 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 6.5
Syllabus:
 
  Life: Biological Principles and the Science of Zoology (2 Hours) - The Origin and Chemistry of Life (2 Hours) - Organic Evolution (4 Hours) - The Reproductive Process (2 Hours) - Principles of Development (2 Hours) - Architectural Pattern of an Animal (2 Hours) - Classification and Phylogeny of Animals (2 Hours) - Protozoan Groups (4 Hours) - Sponges and Placozoans (2 Hours) - Radiate animals (2 Hours) - Flatworms, Mesozoans and Ribbonworms (2 Hours) - Gnathiferans and Smaller Lophotrochozoans (2 Hours) - Molluscs (4 Hours) - Annelids and Allied Taxa (2 Hours) - Smaller Ecdysozoans (2 Hours) - Trilobites, Chelicerates and Myriapods (2 Hours) - Crustaceans (2 Hours) - Hexapods (4 Hours) - Echinoderms (2 Hours) - Chaetognaths and Hemichordates (2 Hours).
 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Embryology: Microscopic observation of sea urchin embryos. 2. Tissue Structure and Function: Microscopic observation of selected tissue sections. 3. Protozoa: Taxonomic characters of protozoans. Microscopic observation of major protozoan groups. 4. Porifera and Cnidaria: Taxonomic characters of porifera and cnidaria. Microscopic and macroscopic observation of sponges, hydrozoans, scyphozoans and anthozoans. 5. Molluscs: Taxonomic characters of molluscs. Anatomy of cuttlefish. 6. Worm-like animals: Taxonomic characters of worm-like animals. Anatomy of earthworms. 7. Crustaceans:
Taxonomic characters of crustaceans. Anatomy of crayfish. 8. Chelicerata and Chilopoda: Taxonomic characters of chelicerata and chilopoda. Microscopic and macroscopic observation of specimens. 9. Insects: Microscopic and macroscopic observation of specimens. External morphology of insects. 10. Taxonomy of crustaceans and insects: Identification of various groups using keys. 11. Echinoderms: Taxonomic characters of echinoderms. Anatomy of sea urchin.

 
Lecturers:
 
 

Α. Nikolaidou Professor of Marine Biology - Α. Legakis Associate Professor of Animal Diversity - S. Dedos Assistant Professor of Zoology - Practicals: V. Krikoni - Kyritsi Teaching Assistant - H. Galenou Teaching Assistant

 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Integrated Principles of Zoology - Vol. I
Authors: C.P.Hickman Jr, L.S.Roberts, S.L.Keen, A.Larson, H.L’Anson, D.J.Eisenhour
Publisher: Utopia Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2010
ISBN: 978-960-99280-2-1
 
Title: General Zoology
Author: Lazaridou - Demetriadou M.
Publisher: Giachoudis S. & Giachoudis M. Publications
Publication Place & Year: Salonika, 1992
ISBN: 960-742524-3
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Zoology I: Laboratory Exercises
Authors: Nikolaidou A., M. Veini, M. Thessalou - Legaki, A. Legakis
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2009
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical examination contributes 40% to the final mark and the mark of the theory examination contributes 60%. Passing marks on both examinations are required.
 

3RD SEMESTER

             
Course Title Compulsory/Elective Code Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
             

Biochemistry II

Compulsory

301

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

7.0

Cell Biology

Compulsory

302

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

7.0

Paleontology

Elective

510

3 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

4

3.5

Physical Anthropology

Elective

502

3 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

4

5.5

Plant Anatomy

Elective

507

3 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

4

4.5

Plant Physiology

Compulsory

304

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

7.0

Zoology II

Compulsory

203

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

7.0

 

DETAILED COURSES CONTENT OF THIRD SEMESTER

BIOCHEMISTRY II

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 301 3rd 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 6.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Concepts of Thermodynamics (2 Hours) - Central pathways of energy metabolism (4 Hours) - Carbohydrates: Chemical structure and general reactions (2 Hours) - Glycolysis (2 Hours) - Regulation of glycolysis (2 Hours) - Gluconeogenesis (2 Hours) - Pentose phosphate pathway (2 Hours) - Metabolism of major non-glucose sugars (2 Hours) - Metabolism of oligo- and polysaccharides (2 Hours) - Regulation of glycogen metabolism (2 Hours) - The Citric Acid Cycle (4 Hours) - Amino-acid and protein metabolism (6 Hours) - Biological membranes (2 Hours) - Membrane transport (2 Hours) - Receptors (2 Hours) - Lipid metabolism (6 Hours) - Respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation (4 Hours) - Hormones - General principle and mode of action (2 Hours) - General regulation and interactions in the intermediate metabolism (2 Hours)

 
Practicals:
 
  1. Transamination - Paper chromatography. 2. Determination of DNA chemical components. 3. Qualitative determination of simple sugars. Hydrolysis of starch. 4. ΠQuantitative determination of reductive sugars. Km determination of β-fructofuranosidase. 5. Lipid hydrolysis. 6. Study of oxidation/reduction enzymes.
 
Lecturers:
 
  E. G. Fragoulis Professor of Biochemistry - D. C. Sideris Associate Professor in Biochemistry of Eukaryotic Organisms
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Biochemistry - Vol. I
Authors: J.M. Berg, J. L. Tymoczko, L. Stryer
Publisher: FORTH - University of Crete Press
Publication Place & Year: Heraklion, 2009
ISBN: 978-960-524-190-2
 
Title: Biochemistry Topics - Vol. II
Author: E. G. Fragoulis
Publisher: Litsas Medical Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2003
ISBN: 960-372-071-2-Β
 
Title: Karlson Biochemistry and Pathobiochemistry
Authors: P. Karlson, D. Doenecke, J. Koolman, G. Fuchs, W. Gerok
Publisher: Litsas Medical Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2010
ISBN:  
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Biochemistry II - Laboratory Manual
Author: D. C. Sideris
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 1996
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical section of the course accounts for 20% of the final mark. Practical and theory sections of the course are examined together.
 

CELL BIOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective
Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 302 3rd 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 6.5
Syllabus:
 
 

INTRODUCTION: STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS - CELLULAR ORGANIZATION (4 Hours): Origin and evolution of organisms. Structural elements - from biomolecules to cells. Bonds of structural elements and biomolecules. Cellular organization. Historical flashback of Biology of the Cell. The status of Biology of the Cell among Biosciences.

ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTION OF A MODEL CELLULAR SYSTEM (2 Hours): Dynamics of cellular structure and function. Structure and function of representative cell types. Ultrastructural analysis of cellular organization.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (4 Hours): Light Microscopy. Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy (TEM and SEM). Historical flashback of Microscopy. Immunofluorescence. Autoradiography. Cellular fractionation. Electrophoresis. Western immunoblotting. Chromatography. Lectins. Informatics and Biology of the Cell.

BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES - SEPARATIVE FUNCTIONAL DOUBLE LAYERS (8 Hours): Components of biological membranes. Fluidity and regulation of fluidity in organisms. Specialized methodology. Properties of biological membranes. Models describing the structure and function of biological membranes. Specialized membrane systems.

FIRST STAIR OF THE FLOW OF GENETIC INFORMATION: LEVELS OF DNA ORGANIZATION (4 Hours): Coding, storage - packaging and decoding of genetic information. Nucleus, nucleolus and chromosomal components. Nuclear envelope, nuclear skeleton and nuclear pores. Human Genome Project (HGP).

SECOND STAIR OF INFORMATION FLOW: SYNTHESIS OF PROTEINS (4 Hours): Protein synthesis. The prokaryotic ribosome. The eukaryotic ribosome. Mechanisms of protein synthesis. Simultaneous translation of an mRNA transcript from multiple ribosomes.

CELLULAR ORGANELLES PRODUCING AND CONVERTING ENERGY: MITOCHONDRIA AND CHLOROPLASTS (2 Hours): Morphology, composition and function of mitochondria. Structure - Function relationships. Morphology, composition and function of chloroplasts. Origin and distribution of their components. Semi-autonomy of structure and function. Information flow - Transcription and Translation.

ORGANELLES PROCESSING AND DEGRADING BIOMOLECULES: PEROXISOMES AND LYSOSOMES (2 Hours): Morphology and function of peroxisomes. Morphology and function of lysosomes. Participation of lysosomes in the process of pinocytosis and phagocytosis. Contribution of lysosomes in cellular function.

CELLULAR FIBRILS - CYTOSKELETON (4 Hours): Microfilaments. Actin participation in cellular mechanisms of movement. Intermediate Filaments (IF). Characteristic types, intracellular organization and distribution of Intermediate Filaments. Microtubules, nucleation mechanisms. Microtubule Organizing Centers (MTOCs). The role of microtubules in mitosis. Cilia and flagella. The Actin-Myosin system. Proteins of thick and thin myofibrils. Interactions of myofibrils with extracellular matrix. Filaments and cellular shape. Microvilli.

SELF - ASSEMBLY, SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES - VIRUSES - PHAGES (4 Hours): Assembly of macromolecules - supramolecular structures - viruses and phages. Protein self-assembly. Self-assembly of viruses and phages. Lytic and lysogenic cycle of bacteriophages.

CELLULAR COMMUNICATION AND CONJUNCTION (4 Hours): Morphological manifestation of communication: Cellular junctions. Communication junctions. Occluding junctions. Anchoring junctions. Cellular adherence. Chemotaxis.

EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (4 Hours): Components, organization and functions of extracellular material. Collagens and elastins. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans (PGs). Extracellular matrix proteins of multiple adhesion. Basement membrane. Supramolecular structure of extracellular components.

CELL CYCLE - REPRODUCTION (4 Hours): Cell growth and division. Interphase. Cell cycle regulation during interphase. Cell cycle progression and the distinct restriction - check points. Regulation of the cell cycle check points. Mitosis and cytokinesis. Mechanisms controlling mitosis. Meiosis. Stages of the meiotic divisions I and II.

PRINCIPLES OF SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION (2 Hours): Role of protein phosphorylation in signal transduction. Classification of biological signals. Growth Factors (GFs). Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). Role of signal transduction in cellular differentiation and development.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Cellular fractionation - determination of mitochondrial enzyme activities. 2. Isolation of red cell (erythrocyte) membranes - Osmosis. 3. Analysis of membrane proteins by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 4. Isolation and observation of polytene chromosomes. 5 - 6. Study of cellular function by autoradiography. 7. Ultrastructural study of cellular components by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). 8. Ultrastructural analysis of cellular organization in electron micrographs.

 
Lecturers:
 
  I. Papassideri Associate Professor of Cellular & Developmental Biology - D. Stravopodis Assistant Professor of Cell Biology & Development - Ι. Trougakos Associate Professor of Animal Cell Biology & Electron Microscopy
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Cell Biology, 4th Edition
Authors: Margaritis L.H., Galanopoulos B. K., Keramaris K. E., Marinos E. S., Papasideri I. S., Stravopodis D. J., I. P. Trougakos
Publisher: Litsas Medical Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2004
ISBN: 960-372-077-1
 
Title: Cell Biology - A Molecular Approach, 5th Edition
Authors: Marmaras B., Lambropoulou - Marmara M.
Publisher: Typorama
Publication Place & Year: Patras, 2005
ISBN: 960-7620-13-5
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Cell Biology - Laboratory Manual
Authors: Margaritis L.H., Papasideri I.S.
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2000
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical work contributes 30% to the final mark. The practical mark results from the examination performed during the exercise hours and written quiz (exercises 7 and 8). 
 

PALEONTOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 510 3rd 3 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 4 3.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction (4 Hours): Fossil, fossilization. Paleoichnology. Facies. The importance of fossils. Paleontological methods. Chronology of strata by fossils. Geological time scale (Stratigraphy).

Paleoecology - Taphonomy  (4 Hours): Theories and evolution implications. Fossil records in the geological time-scale. Mass extinction events.

Invertebrate Paleontology  (4 Hours): Porifera (sponges). Cnidarians (corals). Classification, paleoecology, evolutionary trends, stratigraphical distribution mainly in Greece. Brachiopods. Classification, paleoecology, evolutionary trends, stratigraphical distribution mainly in Greece.

Molluscs (6 Hours): Placophorans-Scaphopoda-Bivalvia-Gastropoda: Classification, paleoecology, evolutionary trends, stratigraphical distribution mainly in Greece. Cephalopoda: Nautiloidea-Ammonoidea: Classification, paleoecology, suture morphology, evolutionary trends, stratigraphical distribution mainly in Greece. Belemnitoidea: Classification, paleoecology, evolutionary trends, stratigraphical distribution mainly in Greece.

Echinoderms (3 Hours): Classification, paleoecology, evolutionary trends, stratigraphical distribution mainly in Greece. Arthropods: Cirripedia. Trilobites: Classification, paleoecology, evolutionary trends, stratigraphical distribution mainly in Greece. Graptolites: Classification, paleoecology, evolutionary trends, stratigraphical distribution mainly in Greece.

Vertebrate Paleontology  (6 Hours): History. Evolution (Darwin, Cuvier, Gould etc.). Mechanisms, Micro-Macro Evolution. Evolution of Vertebrates: Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals. Origin, Classification and Diversity of Vertebrates.

Mammals (4 Hours): Classification, Evolution through time of Equidae, Proboscidea, Carnivora, Rodentia. MN zonation. Mammal faunas in Greece.

Paleoanthropology (3 Hours): Primates, Hominoids, Hominids. Australopithecines, Homo, a. Homo sapiens, a.m. Homo sapiens.

Paleobotany (5 Hours): Evolution of plants. Research methods. The fossil flaura of Greece.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Methods of collecting and preserving fossils. Fossils in the Lab. and in the Museum. Description, classification and nomenclature of fossils. 2. Morphological study of fossil: sponges, corals, brachiopods, gastropods, bivalves. Genera and species from Greece. 3. Morphological study of: ammonites, nautilus, belemnites from the general fossil record and Greece. 4. Morphological study of: echinoderms, balanus, trilobites, graptolites. 5. Study of: fossil vertebrate skulls and postcranial. Mammal dentition. Fossil Greek mammal faunas. 6. Study of: fossil skulls and postcranial of Primates and hominids. 7. Study of fossil plants from Greek flauras.

 
Lecturers:
 
 

Ε. Koskeridou Assistant Professor, Faculty of Geology & Geoenvironment, Department of Historical Geology & Palaeontology - S. Roussiakis Lecturer, Faculty of Geology & Geoenvironment, Department of Historical Geology & Palaeontology - Practicals: Ν. Tsaparas Teaching Assistant

 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Paleontology - Part I
Authors: E. Georgiadou - Dikaioulia, N. Symeonidis, G. Theodorou
Publisher: Gelmpesis Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2003
ISBN:  
 
Title: Paleontology - Part II
Authors: E. Georgiadou - Dikaioulia, N. Symeonidis, G. Theodorou
Publisher: Gelmpesis Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2003
ISBN:  
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Paleontology Lab Notes (Invertebrates)
Author: E. Koskeridou
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2009
 
Title: Paleobotany Topics
Author: K. Kouli
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2011
 
Notes:
 
  The examination of the lab exercises is made orally and taken into account simultaneously with the examination of the course syllabus.
 

PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 502 3rd 3 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 4 5.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction to Anthropology.Introduction to Evolutionary Fact and Theory. Basics of Human Biology.Introduction to Genetics and Genomics.Modern Evolutionary.Theory Primate Behavioral Ecology. Early Primate Evolution. Early Hominin Evolution. Plio-Pleistocene Hominins and the Genus Homo.The Rise of Modern Humans . Human Biological Diversity in Context.The Present and Future of Human Evolution.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1 - 2. Study of the human skeleton. 3. Sex determination. 4. Estimate of the death age-Palaiodemography. 5. Anthropometry Study of the human diversity I, 6. Anthropometry Study of the human diversity II. 7. Primates I (Primates taxonomy). 8. Primates II (Homini taxonomy). 9. Rimates III (Primates Molecular taxonomy-Methods). 10. Study of the Evolutionary forces.

 
Lecturers:
 
  Ε. Valakos Associate Professor of Comparative Animal Physiology - Ecophysiology - S. Efthimiopoulos Professor of Animal & Human Physiology - Neurobiology - P. Papazafiri Associate Professor of Animal Physiology - Ο. Tsitsilonis Assistant Professor of Immunology - I.-K. Aggeli Assistant Professor of Animal Physiology
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
  Title: Biological Anthropology
Author: Agustin Fuentes, Translated in Greek, also with additional Chapters
Publisher: Utopia Publishing
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2013
ISBN: 978-960-99280-9-0
 
  Title: The Human Species: An Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Author: John H. Relethford, Translated by Sotiris Manolis
Publisher: Parisianos Scientific Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2010
ISBN: 978-960-394-652-6
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Biological Anthropology Laboratory Exercises
Author: E. D.Valakos & S Papavasiliou
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2012
 
Notes:
 
  The practical mark resulting from separate examinations contributes 30% to the final mark of the course. Passing marks are required in both practical and theoretical exams.
 

PLANT ANATOMY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 507 3rd 3 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 4 4.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction (2 Hours): Preliminary lectures on histology (3 systems of plant tissues) and secretory structures.

Anatomy - Organography:

Root (4-5 Hours): Apex organization (theories), tissue differentiation, hormone movement, lateral roots, gravitropism, and peculiarities. Environmental factors and root structure.

Shoot (7-8 Hours): Root apex structure and organization, primary and secondary development, gravitropical bending, xylem and phloem analysis, phylogenetical and ecophysiological evaluation of the secondary conductive element architecture. The shoot and the environmental pressures.

Leaf (4-6 Hours): Leaf meristems. Development of simple and composite leaves. Epidermal tissue and leaf development. Epidermis and the effect of light. Mesophyll and the fine structure of the photosynthetic tissues. Structure - environment relations. Evaporation, transpiration and the photosynthetic efficiency of various chlorenchymatic tissues in special plant types (C4, xeromorphic etc). Peculiarities. The effect of air pollution, acid rain and ionizing radiation on the leaf structure.

Secretory structures (2 Hours): Secretion and the factors that induce it. Secretory structures and products. Their significance for the contemporary medicine and pharmaceutical industry.

Flower (4 Hours): Structure of the flower, anatomical modifications during the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive state (experimental approach), the effect of photoperiod in blooming and gametogenesis. The flower and the environment.

Fruit (2 Hours): Fruit development and seed impact, curves and growing conditions, plant hormones - parthenocarpy. Abscission and seed dispersal. Structure and development of various fruits. Fruits, yield and biotechnology.

Embryo (1 Hour): Fertilization and embryogenesis in mono- and di-cotyledons, fine structure of the embryo

Seed (2 Hours): Development and maturation. From dormancy to germination: embryo and seedling, reserve and protective tissues, imbibition, transpiration and light as factors affecting germination. Seed coat and endosperm in various types of seeds.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Fixation techniques - microphotography. 2. Epidermis - stomata - epidermal peeling, paradermal sectioning. 3. Secretory structures. 4. Root anatomy. 5. Gravitropism 6. Apical meristems. 7. Shoot anatomy. 8. Secondary xylem - architecture of. 9. Leaf anatomy - adaptations. 10. Flower, micro- and macro- sporiogenesis. 11. Fruit, seed and embryo.

 
Lecturers:
 
  Ν. Christodoulakis, Associate Professor of Plant Anatomy.
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Anatomy of Plants: Plants internally
Author: Ν. Christodoulakis
Publisher: Perpinias Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2011
ISBN: 978-960-7390-04-2
 
Title: Botany: Plant Morphology and Anatomy - Vol. I
Author: A. Bozampalidis
Publisher: University Studio Press
Publication Place & Year: Salonika, 2011
ISBN: 978-960-12-2047-5
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Plant Anatomy: A Guide to Laboratory Exercises
Author: Ν. Christodoulakis
Publisher: Perpinias Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2010
ISBN: 978-960-7390-02-8
 
Title: Plant Anatomy Manual (CD-Rom)
Author: Ν. Christodoulakis
Publication Place: Athens
 
Publication Year: 2010
 
Notes:
 
  The practical mark resulting from separate examinations contributes 50% to the final mark of the course. Passing marks are required in both practical and theoretical exams.
 

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credite ECTS
Compulsory 304 3rd 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 6.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Plant Physiology is the science that investigates plant functions, from early embryogenesis and germination to plant senescence and death, at every possible organisation level (macromolecules, cells, tissues, organs, whole plants, populations) and with diverse approaches and methods (molecular biology, biochemistry, classical experimental plant biology, ecophysiology). Additionally, it studies the interactions of plants with other organisms (microorganisms, animals, other plants – symbioses, defence, competition) as well as plant responses to abiotic environmental factors (stress, climatic change).

The course is comprised by the following 2-hour lectures:

1. Introduction to Plant Physiology. Overview of Photosynthesis

2. Photosynthesis - the light reactions

3. Photosynthesis –  the carbon reactions (C3 and C2 cycles)

4. Photosynthesis - CO2-concentrating mechanisms (aquatic plants, C4, CAM)

5. Control and regulation of photosynthesis

6. Water and plant life - Water and plant cells

7. Water and plant life - Water balance of plants

8. Transport of solutes. Transport in the phloem

9. Plant responses and adaptations to abiotic stress

10. Mineral nutrition - essential nutrients, deficiencies, nutrient acquisition

11. Biological nitrogen fixation. Assimilation of mineral nutrients

12. Respiration and storage lipid metabolism

13. Secondary metabolites - structure, biosynthesis and functions

14. Growth, Differentiation, Development. Growth kinetics

15. Photomorphogenesis – responses of plants to light

16. Germination and early seedling development

17. Photoperiodism and Flowering

18. Plant movements. Biological rhythms and circadian clock

19. Plant hormones - Auxins

20. Gibberellins

21. Cytokinins & Brassinosteroids

22. Ethylene & Abscisic Acid

23. Are plants "different"? Plant genome plasticity

24. Arabidopsis as a model plant

25. Signal transduction in plants: from signals to receptors and to responses

26. Examples of signal transduction pathways in plants.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Mineral nutrition. 2. Plastid pigments. 3. Photosynthesis. 4. Respiration. 5. Nitrogen metabolism. 6. Transpiration. 7. Plant tissue water relations. 8. Seed germination and dormancy. 9. Light and plant development. 10. Plant hormones and growth. 11. Phototropism.

 
Lecturers:
 
  C. A. Thanos Professor of Plant Physiology - Κ. Georghiou Associate Professor of Plant Physiology - S. Rhizopoulou Associate Professor of Plant Ecophysiology - Α. Roussis Assistant Professor of Molecular Plant Physiology - Μ. S. Meletiou - Christou Lecturer of Plant Physiology
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Plant Physiology - 5th American Edition - 1st Greek Edition
Authors: Taiz Lincoln, Zeiger Eduardo - Greek edition edited by: C. Thanos
Publisher: Utopia Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2012
ISBN: 978-960-98123-9-9
 
Title: Plant Physiology: From Molecule to the Environment
Authors: Edited by: K. Roumpelaki - Angelaki
Publisher: FORTH - University of Crete Press
Publication Place & Year: Heraklion, 2003
ISBN: 960-524-168-4
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Plant Physiology Laboratory Manual
Authors: C. Thanos, C. Spyropoulos, K. Georghiou, S. Rhizopoulou, M.S. Meletiou
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2008
 
Notes:
 
  The practicals mark contributes 50%, to the final course mark but a passing mark is required for both practicals and theory. The  practical mark is obtained from separate practical exams.
 

ZOOLOGY ΙΙ

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 203 3rd 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 6.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Chordates (21 Hours): External and internal morphology, reproduction, development, specifics adaptations and Taxonomy: Introduction (2 Hours), Urochordata, Cephalochordata (2 Hours), Fishes (5 Hours), Amphibians (4 Hours), Reptiles (2 Hours), Birds (2 Hours), Mammals (4 Hours).

Animal Functions (22 Hours): Support and movement (2 Hours), Immunity (2 Hours), Internal liquids and respiration (2 Hours), Homeostasis (2 Hours), Neural coordination (2 Hours), Chemical coordination (2 Hours), Digestion and nutrition (2 Hours), Animal behaviour (2 Hours), Biosphere and animal distribution (2 Hours), Animal ecology (2 Hours), Fauna of Greece (2 Hours).

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Urochordata and Cephalochordata. 2. Actinopterygii (anatomy) 3. Fishes taxonomy. 4-5. Amphibia - Reptilia: Taxonomy. 6. Aves (anatomy). 7. Aves (taxonomy). 8. Mammalia (anatomy). 9. Sensory organs Aves - Mammals.

The following are taught at each laboratory session: taxonomy, internal and external morphology features (systems: digestive, circulatory, genetic, etc.), Biological Cycle, Ecology and Identification keys. Furthermore, the most important representatives of each group are presented..

 
Lecturers:
 
 

R.M. Polymeni Assistant Professor of Ecology - Systematics of Animals - P. Megalofonou Associate Professor of Ichthyology - S. Dedos Assistant Professor of Zoology - P. Pafilis Assistant Professor of Animal Diversity - Practicals: V. Krikoni - Kyritsi Teaching Assistant

 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Integrated Principles of Zoology - Vol. II
Authors: C.P.Hickman Jr, L.S.Roberts, S.L.Keen, A.Larson, H.L’Anson, D.J.Eisenhour
Publisher: Utopia Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2010
ISBN: 978-960-99280-3-8
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Zoology II - A Guide to Laboratory Exercises
Authors: G. Verriopoulos, K. Giannopoulos, R. M. Polymeni, P. Megalofonou, V. Krikoni - Kyritsi
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2009
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical work contributes 40% to the final mark and the mark of the theory examination contributes 60%. Passing marks on both examinations are required.
 

4TH SEMESTER

             
Course Title Compulsory/Elective Code Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
             

Animal Physiology

Compulsory

404

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

7.0

Biostatistics

Elective

608

3 Hrs/Wk

-

3

3.5

General Ecology

Compulsory

403

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

7.0

Genetics

Compulsory

401

5 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

6

8.0

Molecular Biology

Compulsory

402

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

7.0

Pedagogics

Elective

610

2 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

3

5.0

Plant Metabolism

Elective

601

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

5.5

 

DETAILED COURSES CONTENT OF FORTH SEMESTER

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 404 4th 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 6.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction, aim and historical review (2 Hours).

Structure and function of the nervous system (18 Hours): Nerve Tissue: Neurons and neuroglia. Neurophysiology: Resting potential, action potential, mechanism of action potential generation, synapses, neurotransmitters, mechanism of synaptic transmission, receptors. Structure and gross anatomy of the nervous system: Central nervous system, spinal cord, brain, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system, blood supply to brain, blood brain barrier, cerebrospinal fluid, brain metabolism. Sensory Systems: General and special senses. Higher brain functions: Memory, learning, language consciousness and Behavior.

Endocrine system (6 Hours): Regulatory mechanisms, mechanisms of hormone function, hypothalamus, pituitary, peripheral glands.

Motor muscle, structure and function (4 Hours): Role of calcium, regulatory mechanisms, mechanical properties of the diverse muscle types, energetics of muscle contraction.

Circulatory system (6 Hours ): Structure, regulatory mechanisms. Hemodynamics, blood, vertebrate circulatory system.

Respiratory system (2 Hours): Regulatory mechanisms, main functions, organization of the respiratory system.

Mammalian excretory system (6 Hours): Structure and function of the kidney and the nephron. Regulation of water and ion excretion.

Immune system (2 Hours): General organization. Organs and cells mediating immune mechanisms. Innate immunity. Specific immunity.

Energy metabolism (4 Hours): Mechanisms of regulation, mammalian digestive system. Nutrition and absorption.

Thermoregulation (2 Hours): Regulatory mechanisms of specific adaptation.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Properties of nerves. 2. Nerve and neuron simulation. 3. Study of the mechanical properties of muscles : a) skeletal muscle, b) smooth muscle. 4. Energy supply for muscle contraction, kinases of phosphogens, lactate dehydrogenase. 5. Hormone effects on liver glycogen and blood glucose. 6. Effect of food starvation on liver metabolism. 7. Osmoregulation.
8. Respiration. 9. Properties of cardiac muscle : in vivo and during perfusion in vitro. 10. Cell components of the blood, red blood cell hemolysis, hematological parameters. 11. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plasma proteins, determination of plasma and blood volume. 12. Saturation curve of hemoglobin. 13. Mammalian digestive enzymes. 14. Intestinal glucose absorption.

 
Lecturers:
 
 

Ιs. Beis Professor of Zoology - C. Gaitanaki Professor of Animal Physiology - Ε. Valakos Associate Professor of Comparative Animal Physiology -Ecophysiology - S. Efthimiopoulos Associate Professor of Animal & Human Physiology - Neurobiology - P. Papazafiri Associate Professor of Animal Physiology - O. Tsitsilonis Assistant Professor of Immunology - I. K. Aggeli Assistant Professor of Animal Physiology. - Practicals: Dr. A. Marmari Teaching Assistant

 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Human Physiology - The Mechanisms of Body Function
Authors: Α. Vander, J. Sherman, D. Luciano
Publisher: Paschalidis Medical Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2011
ISBN: 978-960-4892-25-9
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Laboratory Exercises in Animal Physiology
Authors: Is. Beis, C. Gaitanaki
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 1997
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical work contributes 20% to the final mark and the mark of the theory examination contributes 80%. Passing marks in both examinations are required.
 

BIOSTATISTICS

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 608 4th 3 Hrs/Wk - 3 3.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Descriptive Statistics: Qualitative - quantitative variables. Frequency distribution - Graphs. Representative status values and dispersion frequency distributions of quantitative variables. Transformations. Normal values.

Quantitative Data Analysis: t-test for observations without correlation. t-test for observations with correlation in pairs. Fault type I and II. Sample size and strength. Confidence intervals. multiple comparisons. Effects of random errors.

Qualitative Data Analysis: X2 correlation of qualitative data. X2 of heterogeneity. X2 in pairs. X2 of proper application. X2 biaxial classification, comparison of proportions.

Introduction to Probability: Evaluation of laboratory findings. Basic probability rules.

Correlation Between Quantitative Characteristics: Parametric correlation coefficient. Simple linear dependence (regression).

Manifold Dependence (Regression): Multiple linear dependence (statistical evaluation of partial dependency rates, optimal selection model, implementation model). Logistic regression.

Same provision Features - Other Non-Parametric Tests: Advantages - disadvantages of non-parametric tests. Test points. Wilcoxon test for observations with match (in pairs). Wilcoxon test for observations without correlation. Non-parametric Spearman correlation coefficient

 
Lecturers:
 
  Κ. Katsouyanni Professor of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Social Medicine, Psychiatry and Neurology - G. Touloumi Associate Professor of Biostatistics and EpidemiologyFaculty of Medicine, Department of Social Medicine, Psychiatry and Neurology - Ch. Bamia Assistant Professor of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Social Medicine, Psychiatry and Neurology - V. Sypsa Lecturer of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Social Medicine, Psychiatry and Neurology - Ε. Samoli Lecturer, Laboratory of Hygiene, Epidemiology & Medical Statistics, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Social Medicine, Psychiatry and Neurology.
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Biostatistics
Authors: D. Trichopoulos, A. Tzonou, K. Katsouyanni
Publisher: Parisianos Scientific Publications
Publication Place & Year: 2002
ISBN: 978-960-394-108-8
 
Title: Exercises in Biostatistics
Authors: A. Tzonou, K. Katsouyanni
Publisher: Athanassopoulos Publications
Publication Place & Year: 1997
ISBN: 978-960-266-014-0
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Notes in Biostatistics
Author: G. Touloumi
Publication Place:  
Publication Year:  
 
Notes:
 
   
 

GENERAL ECOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 403 4th 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 6.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction: Ecology and its objectives. The global environment. Corresponding the living organisms with their environment. The abiotic environment and living entities. Biogeography.

Fundamental concepts and principles of Ecology: Habitat. The niche concept. Limiting factors. The holistic environment..

Biodiversity: Levels of biological diversity. The role of the biodiversity and its importance.

Community: The concept of community. Composition. Spatial organization. Organization in time. Succession. Stability. Diversity of communities. Ecological gradients. Classification and ordination of communities.

Ecosystem: Flow of energy. The biotic component. Feedback mechanisms. Biogeochemical cycles. Major environmental problems related to the biogeochemical cycles.

The diversity of the Planet Earth - Biomes:

Terrestrial Ecosystems: Diversity of terrestrial biomes. Characteristics. Stratification. Growth forms. Life forms. Soil types and terrestrial ecosystems. Climatic types and terrestrial ecosystems. Biogeographical areas. Major terrestrial biomes (rain forests, deciduous forests, coniferous forests, savanna, grasslands, deserts, tundra, and Mediterranean climate ecosystems). Major environmental problems. Conservation and management of terrestrial ecosystems.

Aquatic Ecosystems: Structure and function of aquatic biomes. Fresh water ecosystems (lakes, rivers). Lagoons. Coastal and Pelagic systems. Major environmental problems. Conservation and management of aquatic ecosystems.

Environmental Biotechnology

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Monitoring of plant phenology (field, 8 weeks duration, field measurements every 15 days). 2. Vertical and horizontal vegetation structure; Life and growth forms of plants (field). 3. Soil profile. Types of soil organic horizon (field). 4. Soil decomposers activity (field & laboratory, duration 8 weeks, sampling every 20 days). 5. Sampling methods in plant communities: I. minimum sampling area, II. minimum sampling units (field). 6. Analysis of plant community structure (frequency, abundance, density, diversity) (field). 7. Methods of sampling soil invertebrates (field). 8. Structure of marine algae communities (field). 9. Diversity of soil fungi (laboratory). 10. Soil macro-invertebrates in inter-tidal and sub-tidal rocky substrates. 11. Adaptations of halophytic plants in coastal communities. 12. The avifauna of a coastal habitat..

 
Lecturers:
 
  Μ. Arianoutsou - Faragitaki Professor of Ecology & Terrestrial Ecosystems - Α. Economou - Amilli Professor of Aquatic Ecosystems Ecology - Α. Parmakelis Assistant Professor of Biodiversity and Population Ecology
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: General Ecology (Textbook)
Authors: Arianoutsou-Faragitaki M., Economou-Amilli A., Koumpli – Sovantzi L, Roussomoustakaki M.
Publisher:  
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2012
ISBN:  
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Practical Exercises in General Ecology
Authors: Arianoutsou-Faragitaki  M and Economou – Amilli A (Editors)
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2012
 
Notes:
 
  Field exercises are practiced according to the time scheduled of the Faculty of Biology Teaching Guide and if needed on Saturday. The students are obliged to deliver a report for each exercise 15 days later.

The reports of the practical exercises contribute to the final mark by 20%. Similarly, the passing mark in the examination of the practical exercises contributes to the final mark by 20%. A passing mark in the examination of the practical exercises and the theoretical part of the course is required for an examination to be considered as successful.
 

GENETICS

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 401 4th 5 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 6 7.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction to Genetics (2 Hours): Mendelian Genetics, independent assortment, complete and incomplete dominance, codominance, dihybrid and multihybrid crosses, statistical analysis.

Gene interactions (4 Hours): Interactions between two or more genes, modification of Mendelian ratios, continuous-discontinuous variation, multiple alleles.

Sex determination and sex linkage (7 Hours): Representative modes of sexual differentiation, chromosome ratios in Drosophila and sex determination, the X chromosome and dosage compensation, inheritance of sex-linked and sex-influenced genes.

DNA replication (2 Hours): Mechanisms, model-organisms, prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA synthesis in association with mutation, repair and recombination.

Mutation and Repair (7 Hours): Mutation categories, irradiation-induced and chemical mutagenesis, the molecular basis of mutations, mechanisms of mutant induction, repair mechanisms, effects at the molecular, cellular and organism level, lethal genes.

Recombination (crossing-over) and chromosome mapping (10 Hours): Linkage, homologous recombination and chromosome mapping in haploid and diploid organisms (Drosophila, Ascomycetes, E. coli, Plants, H. sapiens). Somatic cell genetics, mitotic recombination, and gene conversion. Models and molecular mechanisms of homologous recombination.

Genetic code (5 Hours): An overview of the genetic code, early proposals and findings, universality of the code and genetic specification of the translation apparatus. The nature and role of nonsense, chain termination and suppressor mutations. Anorthodox reading of the genetic code and overlapping genes.

Gene function and regulation (12 Hours): Fine structure of the gene, gene function, complementation, gene regulation. Role of cis- and trans-acting regulatory elements, regulation in prokaryotes (lactose and arabinose operons, regulatory networks, polarity), and eukaryotes.

Cytogenetics (10 Hours): Chromosomal deletions, duplications, inversions and translocations in plants, animals and microorganisms. Variation in chromosome number, aneuploidy, polyploidy.

Quantitative and Population Genetics (5 Hours): Continuous variation and polygenes, analysis of polygenic traits, phenotypic and genetic polymorphisms, gene pools and gene frequencies, mutations and evolution, natural selection, fitness of the genome, migration pressure.

Extrachromosomal Inheritance (3 Hours): Maternal effect, organelle heredity, mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA inheritance, infectious heredity.

Environment and Inheritance (2 Hours): Physiological parameters that affect gene expression, conditional mutants, penetrance and expressivity.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Macroscopic and microscopic observation of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type and mutant flies. Crosses of parental flies (use of linked or unlinked genes). 2. Recording and explaining independent assortment and the effects of gene interactions (epistasis) with cobs of Zea mays. 3. Recording F1 progeny of D. melanogaster crosses. F1 x F1 or test-crosses with parental types. 4. Study of human chromosomes, karyotyping, detection of chromosome number alterations and chromosomal anomalies. 5. Recording F2 progeny of D. melanogaster crosses. Discuss and statistically evaluate results. 6.  First round exam. Introduction to haploid microorganism genetic systems. 7. UV-mutagenesis of bacteria (Escherichia coli) and fungi (Aspergillus nidulans). Use of wild-type and mutant strains for the understanding of viability/lethality, mutagenesis and DNA repair. 8. Construct dose-lethality and dose-mutagenesis curves of irradiated bacteria and fungi from (7). Transfer mutants to new selective media to confirm mutant phenotypes and search for A. nidulans auxotrophs by replica plating onto minimal and complete media. 9. Record results from (8); calculate mutation frequencies. Study antimicrobial inhibitor resistance and resistance mechanisms in bacteria by using various resistance markers (chromosomal- or plasmid-borne, mobile or non-mobile):  conduct test-disk inhibition assays, gradient plate inoculations and bacterial matings. Assay for gene induction by cross-inoculations. 10. Record and interpret results from (9). Analyze test results (photographs) of ordered and unordered tetrads as well as mitotic recombination (A. nidulans). 11. Population genetics. Simulation experiments to examine gene frequencies and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. 12.  Second round exam.

 
Lecturers:
 
  Μ. Α. Typas Professor of Genetics - Microbial Genetics (Course Co-ordinator) - Κ. Lamnissou Associate Professor of Genetics - Human Molecular Genetics - K. Pappas Assistant Professor in Genetics - Molecular Microbial Genetics - V. Kouvelis Lecturer of Genetics & Biotechnology
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Introduction to Genetics
Author: S. Alahiotis
Publisher: Livanis Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens,
ISBN: 978-960-14-2346-3
 
Title: Introduction to Genetics
Author: M. Lucas
Publisher: Stamoulis Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2010
ISBN: 978-960-351-814-3
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Additional Notes on Genetics
Author: M. Typas, A. Komitopoulou, K. Lamnissou
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2007
 
Title: Genetics Laboratory Exercises
Author: M. Typas, K. Lamnissou
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2004
 
Notes:
 
  The mark given at practicals (experiments, essays and exams) contributes to 30% of the final course mark; theory examination contributes to 70%. Passing marks in both theoretical and practical examinations are required.
 

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 402 4th 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 6.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Structure and properties of DNA and RNA (7 Hours): Denaturation, renaturation and reassociation of DNA. Hybridization of nucleic acids. Superhelical DNA and topoisomerases. Bacterial and eukaryotic chromosomes. Nucleosomes, active chromatin. Genome size versus organism complexity. Repetitive DNA. The genetic material of viruses and bacteriophages.

Recombinant DNA technology (10 Hours): Restriction endonucleases. DNA ligation. DNA mapping using restriction endonucleases. Cloning, cloning vectors. Identification and characterization of specific DNA sequences, probes, Southern and Northern blots. DNA sequencing methods. PCR method and applications. Whole genome sequencing research programs.

DNA replication (9 Hours): Protein factors and enzymes of replication. Mechanisms of DNA replication in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. DNA replication in bacteriophages and viruses.

Transcription (5 Hours): Transcription enzymes. Promoter sequences. The mechanism of transcription in prokaryotic organisms. Transcriptional processing. Regulation of transcription in prokaryotes-the lactose operon.

Transcription in Eykaryotic Organisms (7 Hours): Transcription factors. Processing of mRNA, tRNA and rRNA. Introduction to the control of transcription.

Protein biosynthesis (translation of mRNA) (12 Hours): The genetic code, wobble effect, repression, origin and evolution of genetic code. The mechanism of protein biosynthesis. Structure and function of tRNA. Structure and function of ribosomes. The role of ribosomal RNA.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Isolation of total DNA from animal tissue. 2. Isolation of total RNA from animal tissue. 3. Bacterial transformation using recombinant plasmids. 4. Isolation of recombinant plasmid DNA. 5. Electrophoretic analysis of DNA using agarose gels. 6. DNA mapping using restriction endonucleases.

 
Lecturers:
 
  G. Rodakis Professor of Molecular and Evolutionary Biology - Dido Vassilacopoulou Associate Professor in Biochemistry of Eukaryotic Organisms - S. Tsitilou Associate Professor in Molecular Biology of Eukaryotic Organisms.
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Molecular Biology of the Gene
Authors: J. Watson, T. Baker, S. Bell, A. Gann, M. Levine, R. Losick
Publisher: Utopia Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2011
ISBN: 978-960-98123-1-3
 
Title: Recombinant DNA: Genes and Genomes - a Short Course
Authors: Watson, Caudy, Myers, Witkowski
Publisher: Academic Publications J. Basdra & Co
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2007
ISBN: 978-960-88412-5-3
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Introduction to Molecular Biology
Authors: R. Lecanidou, S. Tsitilou, G. Rodakis
Publication Place: Athens  
Publication Year: 2007
 
Notes:
 
  The mark  of the practicals accounts for 20% of the final mark. Practical and theory sections of the course are examined together.
 

PEDAGOGICS: INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATION - LEARNING THEORIES - TEACHING METHODOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 610 4th 2 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 3 5.0
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction to Educational Sciences (clarification of fundamental concepts and areas in Education). Developmental concepts in Pedagogy during recent centuries. Contemporary issues and trends in Education. Globalization and Education.

Learning theories: Critical analysis of representative theories of learning and their educational implications (behavioristic theories, cognitive theories - Piaget, Bruner, Vygotsky etc. - Gestalt theories, Humanistic theories - Rogers, Maslow, etc.). Learning transfer, Learning factors.

Teaching methodology: Goals and objectives in education. Teaching principles. Teaching methods and strategies. Stages and phases for instruction. Teaching media. Evaluation of instruction.

 
Practicals:
 
 

Class observation in secondary schools. Completion of observation schedules and indexes.

 
Lecturers:
 
  C. Kynigos Professor, Faculty of Philosophy - Pedagogy & Psychology, Department of Pedagogy - Ζ. Smyrnaiou Lecturer, Faculty of Philosophy - Pedagogy & Psychology, Department of Pedagogy
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Cognitive Psychology and Teaching
Authors: A. Koutsoukos, Z. Smyrnaiou
Publisher: Herodotus Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2008
ISBN: 978-960-8256-60-6
 
Title: The Lesson of Investigation
Author: C. Kynigos
Publisher: Motivo Publishing
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2011
ISBN: 978-960-499-018-4
 
Notes:
 
   
 

PLANT METABOLISM

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 601 4th 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 5.5
Syllabus:
 
  Plant hormones (12 Hours): Auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene, brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, polyamines. Βiosynthesis, metabolism, signal transduction, mechanism of action.

Sugar sensing in plants and molecular signal transduction (8 Ηours): Role of sugars in plant energy and carbon metabolism. Sugars as signaling molecules in plants, their role in development and germination. Sugars, hormones and signal transduction in early development. Sugar sensors in plants. Trehalose metabolism and related signal transduction. The role of trehalose biosynthesis in plants. Connections of metabolism and development in plants.

Nitrogen metabolism (10 Hours): Amino acid metabolism, non protein amino acids, ureides. Interactions between photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen metabolism. Storage proteins, storage protein biosynthesis during seed development, protein bodies, mobilization of stored protein reserves in germinating seeds. Plant storage proteins and human nutrition.

Lipid metabolism (10 Hours): Structure and function of plant lipids. Fatty acids, fatty acid biosynthesis. Membrane lipids, membrane lipid biosynthesis in plastids and endoplasmic reticulum. Effect of environmental factors on plant membrane lipid and fatty acid composition. Membrane lipid function in signalling and defensive processes. Waxes, cutin, suberin. Metabolism of storage lipids, triacylglycerol biosynthesis, oil bodies, mobilization of storage lipids in germinating seeds, β-oxidation, glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis. Industrial applications of plant lipids, improvement of oil quality.

Secondary metabolism (6 Hours): Introduction. Terpenoids, Alkaloids, Phenοlic compounds. Biosynthetic pathways, biotechnological applications. Secondary metabolism in response to biotic and abiotic stress (wounding, oxidative stress, heavy metals, UV).

Basic concepts in Plant Metabolomics (6 Ηours):  What is metabolomics, history and introduction. Connection with proteomics. Preparation of biological samples for analysis. Extraction, separation and detection of metabolites (GC-MS, LC-MS, HPLC etc). Experimental data analysis. The dynamics of metabolimics, limitations in analysis. Fields (genotypic and phenotypic analysis, understanding of physiological mechanisms, determination of the nature and the range of differences between biological samples etc). Metabolic networks and systems biology. Examples from recent literature.
 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Action of gibberellic acid (GA3) in α-amylase synthesis in the aleurone cells of wheat (Triticumaestivum var. capeiti) germinating seeds. The role of abscisic acid (ΑΒΑ). 2. Time course of α-galactosidase activity and endosperm galactomannan content during germination of fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum-graecumL.) seeds. 3. Quantitative determination of sucrose and reducing sugars in the embryos of germinating fenugreek seeds. 4. Quantitative determination of total nitrogen during leaf development of LaurusnobilisL. 5. Storage lipid mobilization in the cotyledons of Citrulluslanatus,during seedling growth. 6. Determination of fatty acid composition of Citrulluslanatus cotyledons, during seedling growth, using gas chromatography. 7. Analysis of essential oils from leaves of Laurusnobilis L.

 
Lecturers:
 
  Α. Roussis Assistant Professor of Molecular Plant Physiology - S. Meletiou - Christou Lecturer of Plant Physiology.
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Plant Physiology - 5th American Edition - 1st Greek Edition
Authors: Taiz Lincoln, Zeiger Eduardo - Greek edition edited by: C. Thanos
Publisher: Utopia Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2011
ISBN: 978-960-98123-9-9
 
Title: Plant Physiology: From Molecule to the Environment
Author: Edited by: K. Roumpelaki - Angelaki
Publisher: FORTH - University of Crete Press
Publication Place & Year: Heraklion, 2009
ISBN: 960-524-168-4
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Notes on Plant Metabolism
Authors: S. Meletiou - Christou, A. Roussis
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2012
 
Title: Laboratory Exercises of Plant Metabolism
Authors: C. Spyropoulos, S. Meletiou - Christou
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year:  
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical work, obtained from separate examination, contributes 50% to the final mark. Passing marks in both examinations are required.
 

5TH SEMESTER

             
Course Title Compulsory/Elective Code Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
             

Advanced Genetics

Elective

504

4 Hrs/Wk

-

4

5.5

Aquatic Plant Organisms

Elective

511

2 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

3

4.0

General Microbiology

Compulsory

303

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

7.0

Human Genetics

Elective

505

3 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

4

5.5

Immunology

Elective

503

3 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

4

5.5

Plant Cell Biology

Elective

506

3 Hrs/Wk

2 Hrs/Wk

4

5.5

Population Ecology

Compulsory

501

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

7.0

Terrestrial Plants & Fungi

Elective

512

3 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

4

5.5

 

DETAILED COURSES CONTENT OF FIFTH SEMESTER

ADVANCED GENETICS

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 504 5th 4 Hrs/Wk - 4 5.5
Syllabus:
 
 

DNA Damage (3 Hours): Mechanisms of spontaneous mutation, role of DNA polymerases, depurination and depyrimidination, and environmental mutagenic agents.

Molecular mechanisms of DNA Repair (5 Hours): Detoxification of chemical mutagenic agents, photo-repair, repair of mutations produced by alkylating agents, role of glycosylases, role of AP endonucleases, excision mechanisms, post-replication repair, repair through genetic recombination, SOS-repair system.

Transposable Elements (4 Hours): Prokaryotic and eukaryotic transposable elements, molecular mechanisms of Tn transposition, replication mechanisms, regulation mechanisms, Tn5-Tn10-Mu as prokaryotic examples, corn-drosophila transposons as eukaryotic examples, retroviruses and retrotransposons, LINE and SHINE sequences.

Extrachromosomal Inheritance (8 Hours): Methods of detection, maternal effects, genome organization and gene function of chloroplast DNA, genome organization and gene function of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), mapping of circular eukaryotic replicons, mtDNA in population studies, diagnosis and molecular phylogenesis, endosymbiosis theories.

Bacterial and fungal transformation (8 Hours): Kinetics of bacterial transformation, cell competence, the fate of transformed DNA, molecular mechanisms of transformation, fungal transformation, genetic mapping via transformation. Protoplast technology: generation of naked protoplasts from bacterial, fungal and plant cells. Protoplast fusion between otherwise incompatible to mating cells. Electroporation.

Bacterial conjugation (10 Hours): Conjugation in E. coli, the paradigm and history of F plasmid, F+, F-, F' and Hfr strains, molecular mechanisms of DNA transfer via conjugation, structural and functional properties of plasmids, role of IS elements, copy number control and partition, mechanisms of plasmid incompatibility, catabolic plasmids, R- plasmids, helped conjugation, mobilization, molecular mechanisms of repression and de-repression, strain construction.

Phage transduction (6 Hours): Types of transducing phages, generalised transduction, abortive transduction, specialized transduction, the paradigm of λ phage, genetic organization and gene function of λ phage genome, constructing λd and λdgal strains, role of helper phages, the genetic basis of lysogeny, molecular mechanisms controlling the lytic and lysogenic cycles, the role of phages in gene inactivation and strain construction.

Genetic Engineering (8 Hours): DNA isolation from prokaryotes and eukaryotes – vector DNA isolation (plasmid, phage and viral). DNA shearing and the use of restriction/modification enzymes. Molecular cloning of DNA fragments into plasmid, phage, cosmid, BAC and YAC vectors - cell transformation with recombinant DNA. Genomic or cDNA library construction, methods to search for specific genes. Further analysis of recombinant DNA: restriction analysis and mapping, hybridization, sequencing and PCR. Recombinant DNA technology applications in gene expression studies, directed mutagenesis, gene replacement and therapy, molecular diagnostics, protein overexpression and transgenic technology.

 
Lecturers:
 
  Μ. Α. Typas Professor of Genetics - Microbial Genetics (Course Co-ordinator) - K. Pappas Assistant Professor in Genetics - Molecular Microbial Genetics - V. Kouvelis Lecturer of Genetics & Biotechnology
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Advanced Genetics (Textbook)
Authors: M. A. Typas, A. Komitopoulou, K. Pappas
Publisher:  
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2006
ISBN:  
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Notes on Advanced Genetics
Author: M. A. Typas, A. Komitopoulou, K. Pappas
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2006
 
Notes:
 
   
 

AQUATIC PLANT ORGANISMS

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 511 5th 2 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 3 4.0
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction to the Algae. The Roles of Algae in Biogeochemistry. Algae in Biotic Associations. (2 Ηours)

Technological Applications of Algae. Algal Diversity and Relationships.    (2 Ηours)

Cyanobacteria – Chloroxybacteria. (2 Ηours).

Endosymbiosis and Diversification of Eukaryotic Algae (focus on Glaucophyta & Chlorarachniophyta).  Euglenoids (2 Ηours)

Cryptomodas. Haptophytes. Dinoflagellates (4 Ηours)

Photosynthetic Stramenopiles (Bacillariophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Synurophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae, Raphidophyceae, Pelagophyceae, Dictyophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Phaeophyceae και close relatives) (4 Ηours)

Rhodophytes  (1 Ηour)

Chlorophytes (Prasinophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Charophyceae) (4 Ηours)

Algal Ecology (1 Ηour).

Aquatic Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta (Morphology, life cycles, taxonomic characteristics, systematics, phylogeny and ecology of the higher taxonomic categories. Representative taxa) (4 hours)

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Collection of microalgae (cyanobacteria) from aquatic habitats e.g. thermal springs. Measurements of abiotic factors. Enrichment cultures in different media (field exercise). 2. Cyanobacteria: Microscopic analysis. Description of key morphological features. Identification of selected cyanobacteria from preserved and cultured material. 3-4. Chlorophyta: Microscopic analysis, morphological features and life cycles of selected morphotypes from wild and cultured material. 5. Rhodophyta, Stramenopiles (Phaeophyceae): Microscopic analysis, morphological features and life cycles of selected morphotypes from wild and cultured material. 6-7. Stramenopiles (mainly Diatoms): Cleaning and mounting of diatom slides. Detailed morphological analysis and taxonomy of characteristic genera. 8. Dinophyta: Observation under the light microscope of the principal morphological features. Taxonomy of representative genera. 9-10. Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta: Observation of morphological characters and identification of some representative aquatic plants which belong to different families.

 
Lecturers:
 
  Α. Pantazidou Associate Professor (Systematics & Ecology of Prokaryotic Organisms) - D. Danielidis Associate Professor (Ecology & Systematics of Microalgae) - Th. Constantinidis Assistant Professor (Systematic Botany).
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Algae - Translation Editor: A. Economou - Amilli
Author: L.E. Graham, J.M. Graham & L.W. Wilcox
Publisher: E. Kostaraki Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2011
ISBN: 978-960-87655-9-7
 
Lab Notes:
 
Title: Vascular Plants
Authors: L. Koumpli - Sovantzi, Th. Constantinidis
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2011
 
Notes:
 
  Laboratory score accounts for 40% of the final mark. The laboratory mark is the result of independent practical examination. A mark of 5 (or higher) in both examinations is required.
 

GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 303 5th 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 6.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction to Microbiology (10 Hours): Microorganisms, Microbiology and Microbiologists. Brief historical evolution of Microbiology. The impact of microorganisms on humans, animals and plants on Earth. Biochemistry of microbial cell. The evolution of microorganisms and their position in the living world. Microbial taxonomy. Differentiation. Prokaryotic cell. Eukaryotic cell (The paradigms of yeasts and filamentous fungi, the eukaryotic membrane, protein topogenesis and dynamic trafficking, transporters and channels, fungal differentiation, asexual and sexual life cycles, dimorphism, mating types).

The biology of viruses and plasmids (8 Hours): General review on viruses and plasmids. Bacterial viruses: bacteriophages or phages. Plant and animal viruses. Transposons and other mobile elements, viruses and plasmids. Basic principles of oncogenesis. AIDS virus. The molecular basis of symbioses. Classification of viruses. Viroids.

Microbial Nutrition (biochemistry and metabolism of microorganisms) (4 Hours): Nutritional requirements of microorganisms. Categories of microorganisms according to their nutritional requirements. Microbiological media.

Microbial growth and growth kinetics (8 Hours): Introduction. Microbial growth in closed environments (Batch culture). Microbial growth in open environments (Chemostat growth kinetics).

Microbial cultivation (2 Hours): Direct and indirect measurements of microbial population.

Microbial growth control - Impact of physicochemical factors on microbial growth (4 Hours): Effect of temperature on growth. Effect of high and low pH on growth. Osmotic effects on microbial growth.

Microorganisms and environment - Biogeochemical cycles of elements (6 Hours): Symbiotic relations between microorganisms. Rhizoshpere. Mycorrhizae. Nitrogen Fixation. Pathogenic microorganisms. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen cycles. Nitrogen cycle. Sulphur cycle, iron and other elements cycles.

Microbial diversity (4 Hours): Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryotic organisms: microbial taxonomy and phylogeny. Prokaryotic organisms. Eukaryotic organisms. Biodiversity and new information on microbial ecology.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Microbiological Media - Aseptic methods - Sterilization methods. 2. Inoculum - methods of inoculation. 3. Pure culture techniques (streak plate, pour plate, isolating a bacterial culture). 4. Estimation of the measurement parameters of microbial population. 5. Microbial growth in batch culture. 6. Effect of temperature and pH on microbial growth. 7. Examination of microbial growth - antimicrobial agents. 8. Determination of the metabolic activity of the soil microbial population - Specific phosphatase activity. 9. Soil microbiology: nitrogen cycle. 10. Food microbiology: qualitive and quantitive examination of bacteria in raw and pasteurized milk. 11. Identification of bacteria and yeasts. 12. Identification of filamentous fungi.

 
Lecturers:
 
  Α. Karagounis - Kyrtsou Professor of Microbiology - G. Diallinas Professor of Molecular Microbiology - Α. Roussis Assistant Professor of Molecular Plant Physiology - D. Hatzinikolaou Assistant Professor of Microbial Biotechnology
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Microbiology
Author: Α. Karagounis - Kyrtsou
Publisher: Stamoulis Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 1999
ISBN: 960-651-204-4
 
Title: Laboratory Exercises for General Microbiology
Author: Α. Karagounis - Kyrtsou
Publisher: Stamoulis Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2001
ISBN: 960-350-368-7
 
Title: Biology of Microorganisms - Vol. I
Authors: Brock, Madigan, Martinko, Parker
Publisher: FORTH - University of Crete Press
Publication Place & Year: Heraklion, 2008
ISBN: 978-960-524-200-1
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical examination contributes 30% to the final mark and the grade of the theory examination contributes 70%. Passing marks on both examinations are required.
 

HUMAN GENETICS

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 505 5th 3 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 4 5.5
Syllabus:
 
 

History of Genetics (2 Hours): Mendelism, Chromosomal theory of inheritance.

Human reproductive system (4 Hours): Oogenesis. Spermatogenesis. Meiosis. Hormonal regulation.

Cytogenetics (9 Hours): Normal karyotype. Chromosomal aberrations. Chimerism.

Genetic variability (3 Hours): Genetic polymorphisms and mutations.

Hemoglobin and Hemoglobinopathies (4 Hours): Normal hemoglobins. Various types of hemoglobinopathies. Thalassemia.

Biochemical Genetics (3 Hours): Inborn errors of metabolism. Errors of amino acids, carbohydrate, lipoproteins and organic acids metabolism.

Pharmacogenetics (2 Hours): Genetics of drugs metabolism.

Cancer Genetics (4 Hours): Oncogenes. Tumor suppressor genes. Familial cancer.

Genetic counseling and Prenatal diagnosis (3 Hours): Genetic counseling. Prenatal diagnosis. Techniques of embryonic samples.

Assisted Reproduction (2 Hours): In Vitro fertilization. Immunology of infertility.

Gene therapy (3 Hours): Genetic disorders and possibility of genetic therapy. Types of genetic therapy. Systems of gene transfer.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Karyotype analysis. 2. Hematopoiesis. 3. Hemoglobin electrophoresis 4. DNA isolation. 5. Mutations and polymorphisms.

 
Lecturers:
 
  V. Aleporou - Marinou Associate Professor of Biochemical & Molecular Genetics - P. Kollia Assistant Professor of Human Molecular Genetics
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Human Genetics
Authors: Th. Patargias, V. Aleporou
Publisher: Athanassopoulos Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2005
ISBN: 960-266-149-6
 
Title: Principles of Medical Genetics
Authors: Gelehrter TD, Collins FS, Ginsburg D - Translated by A. Fragouli
Publisher: Paschalidis Medical Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2003
ISBN: 960-399-144-9
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Human Genetics - Laboratory Exercises
Author: V. Aleporou - P. Kollia
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2007
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical work contributes 25% to the final mark and the mark of the theory examination contributes 75%. Passing marks in both examinations are required.
 

IMMUNOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 503 5th 3 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 4 5.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction - Overview of the immune system - Innate immunity, Adaptive immunity (3 Hours) - Cells and organs of the immune system (2 Hours) - Antigens (1 Hour) - Antibodies: Structure and function, hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies (3 Hours) - Antigen-antibody interactions: Principles and Applications (1 Hour) - Major Histocompatibility (1 Hour) - Antigen processing and presentation (2 Hours) T-cell receptor (2 Hours) - T-cell maturation, activation and differentiation (2 Hours) - B-cell generation, activation and differentiation (3 Hours) - Cytokines (1 Hour) - The complement system (2 Hours) - Cell-mediated effector responses (2 Hours) - Leukocyte migration and inflammation (2 Hours) - Hypersensitive responses (2 Hours) - Immune response to infectious diseases (1 Hour) - AIDS and other immunodeficiences (3 Hours) - Autoimmunity (2 Hours) - Transplantation Immunology (1 Hour) - Cancer and the immune system (2 Hours) - Experimental systems (1 Hour).

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Lymphoid organs and cells of the mammalian immune system. 2. Purification and characterization of immunoglobulins. 3. Isolation and identification of immune cells. 4. Immunoprecipitation. 5. Immunodiffusion-Immunofixation. 6. Immunoelectrophoresis. 7. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 8. In vitro cell toxicity assay. 9. Hemagglutination. 10. Hemaplaque assay. 11. Flow cytometry. 12. Western blot analysis. 13. Mixed-lympholyte reaction. 14. Radioimmunoassay.

 
Lecturers:
 
 

C. Gaitanaki Professor of Animal Physiology - P. Papazafiri Associate Professor of Animal Physiology - O. Tsitsilonis Assistant Professor of Immunology - I.-K. Aggeli Assistant Professor of Animal Physiology. Practicals: Dr. A. Maramari, Teaching Assistant

 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Immunology
Authors: Goldsby, Kindt, Osborne, Kuby. Translation - Editing: C. Gaitanaki - C. Baxevanis
Publisher: Paschalidis Medical Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2007
ISBN: 978-960-399-530-2
 
Title: Immunology
Author: D. Male, D. Broth, I. Roitt
Publisher: Parisianos Scientific Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2010
ISBN: 978-960-394-672-4
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Immunology - Laboratory Exercises
Authors: C. Gaitanaki, A. Karagounis, P. Papazafiri, O. Tsitsilonis
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2003
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical work, obtained from separate examination, contributes 20% to the final mark. Passing marks (5/10) in both examinations are required.
 

PLANT CELL BIOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 506 5th 3 Hrs/Wk 2 Hrs/Wk 4 5.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction (2 Hours): Fine structure of the plant cell. patterns of plant cell organization, evolution, divergences during evolution. Methods for the study of the structure and function of the plant cell.

External surface of the plant cell (6 Hours): a) Biogenesis, physical and chemical properties of the cell wall during growth and differentiation. b) Plasmalemma. c) Specialized cell wall -plasmalemma complexes, plasmodesmata.

Plant cytoskeleton (6 Hours): Occurrence, structure, chemical composition, molecular structure, polymerization, organization and function of microtubules and actin microfilaments. Other cytoskeletal proteins.

Plastids (6 Hours): a) Chloroplasts (architecture, fine structure, molecular organization, origin and function of thylakoids, distribution of photosystems, plastid DNA, plastid ribosomes, chloroplasts of C4 plants, algal chloroplasts). b) Autonomy, duplication and origin of plastids.

Microbodies (2 Hours): Structure, chemical composition, origin, development, functions.

Vacuoles  (2 Hours): Organization, origin, development, functions.

Endomembrane system  (4 Hours): Organization, origin, function.

Mitotic apparatus (6 Hours): Organization and evolution of the mitotic apparatus in plants. Mechanisms of chromosome movement.

Cytokinetic apparatus (3 Hours): Organization and evolution of cytokinetic apparatus, determination of the division site.

Polarity. (2 Hours) Tip growing cells.

 
Practicals:
 
 

Study by electron microscopy: 1. Organization of meristematic plant cells. 2. Organization of the photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants. 3. Organization of the photosynthetic apparatus in lower plants. 4. Organization of the mitotic and cytokinetic apparatus in higher plants. 5. Organization of the mitotic and cytokinetic apparatus in lower plants.

 
Lecturers:
 
  P. Apostolakos Professor of Plant Morphology - Β. Galatis Professor of Plant Cell Biology - Histology, Anatomy & Plant Body Differentiation - Ch. Katsaros Professor of Plant Structure & Development - Phycology.
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Botany: Plant Cell Biology and Histology of Plants
Author: Ε. Eleftheriou
Publisher: University Studio Press
Publication Place & Year: Salonika, 2007
ISBN: 978-960-12-1584-6
 
Title: Plant Cell Biology
Authors: P. Apostolakos, Β. Galatis, Ch. Katsaros
Publisher:  
Publication Place & Year: Athens,
ISBN:  
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Plant Cell Biology Notes
Author:  
Publication Place: Athens,
Publication Year:  
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical work, obtained from separate examination, contributes 30% to the final mark. Passing marks in both examinations are required.
 

POPULATION ECOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective
Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 501 5th 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 6.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Population organization (4 Hours): Population features. Spatial arrangement. Diversity. Social organization. Distribution.

Population structure (2 Hours): Size and Density of a population.

Population growth (10 Hours): Biotic potential. Intrinsic growth rate. Life tables. Age classes and distribution. Mathematical models.

Populations' interactions (10 Hours): Competition. Predation and parasitism. Mutualism. Mathematical models.

Population regulation (2 Hours): Oscillations in population size. Factors regulating population size. Density dependent and density independent population regulation. Self-regulation. Demographic strategies.

Population evolution (6 Hours): Evolutionary strategies and adaptations of populations. Diversity and stability of populations.

Human populations (8 Hours): Structure and growth. Interactions with the environment.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Spatial arrangement of plant populations (field). 2. Interspecific competition of plants (laboratory). 3. Intraspecific competition of plant species (field) 4. Structure of soil fauna populations: abundance, frequency, spatial distribution (field & laboratory). 5. Structure of soil fauna populations: diversity, index of similarity (field & laboratory). 6. Biotic interactions of fungi (laboratory). 7. Growth rate analysis in aquatic invertebrates (laboratory). 8. Predation of algae by invertebrates (laboratory).

The field exercises conducted during the days and hours provided in the study guide, but where - and where necessary - on Saturday. For all exercises a report within 15 days of their conduct is compulsory delivered.

 
Lecturers:
 
  Μ. Arianoutsou - Faragitaki Professor of Ecology & Terrestrial Ecosystems - D. Danielidis Associate Professor on Ecology & Systematics of Microalgae - Α. Parmakelis Assistant Professor of Biodiversity and Population Ecology
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Biodiversity Conservation and Protection (Greek translation)
Author: R. Primack
Publisher: Vivliopolis
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2008
ISBN:  
 
Title: Population Ecology (Textbook)
Authors: Μ. Arianoutsou, G. Bitis
Publisher:  
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2007
ISBN:  
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Population Ecology
Author: Μ. Arianoutsou, G. Bitis
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2007
 
Notes:
 
  The reports in the practical exercises contribute to the final mark by 20%. Similarly, the passing mark in the examination of the practical exercises contributes to the final mark by 20%. Optional seminars organized by the students and presented to the class may provide a credit up to 1 grade.
 

TERRESTRIAL PLANTS AND FUNGI

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 512 5th 3 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 4 5.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction (2 Hours)

Fungi (15 Hours): Morphology, reproduction and phylogeny of Fungi. Principles of fungal taxonomy. Introduction to the main fungal groups (morphological characters, methods of reproduction, life-cycles, representative genera, phylogeny, ecology, applications).

Lichens (2 Hours): Morphology, reproduction, phylogeny, ecology.

Bryophyta, Pteridophyta (4 Hours): Bryophytes and Pteridophytes in the kingdom of Plantae. Morphology, reproduction, taxonomic characters, systematics, evolution, phylogeny and ecology of the higher taxonomic categories (division, class, subclass) of Bryophytes and Pteridophytes.

Spermatophyta: Gymnospermae - Angiospermae (16 Hours): Spermatophytes in the kingdom of Plantae. The main classic and modern taxonomic systems of Spermatophytes. The Engler system. Morphology, reproduction, taxonomic characters, systematics, evolution, phylogeny and ecology of the higher taxonomic categories (division, subdivision, class, subclass). Survey of representative families of terrestrial ecosystems (morphological characters, ecology, distribution and practical interest of some genera and species).

 
Practicals:
 
 

Laboratory Exercises: 1. Myxomycetes, Mastigomycetes 2. Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes 3. Ascomycetes, lichenized Ascomycetes 4. Deuteromycetes, Basidiomycetes 5. Basidiomycetes 6. Bryophyta, Pteridophyta 7. Gymnospermae 8. Angiospermae (Dicotyledones) 9. Angiospermae (Dicotyledones) 10. Angiospermae (Monocotyledones).

Field Work: 1. Collection, handling and identification of fungal specimens (2-days foray). 2. Collection, preservation and identification of plant material collected in a natural area (1/2 - day foray). 3. Plant observation and study in a Botanical Garden(1/2 - day foray).

 
Lecturers:
 
  Th. Constantinidis Assistant Professor of Systematic Botany - Ε. Kapsanaki - Gotsi Assistant Professor of Systematics & Ecology of Fungi - Ζ. Gonou - Zagou Lecturer of Systematics & Ecology of Fungi
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Terrestrial Plants and Fungi (Textbook)
Authors: A. Giannitsaros, E. Kapsanaki - Gotsi
Publisher:  
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2006
ISBN:  
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Laboratory Exercises - Part I: Fungi - Part II: Plants
Authors: A. Giannitsaros, E. Kapsanaki - Gotsi
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2007
 
Notes:
 
  A student's total mark is composed by 30% of the practical examination, 60% of the theoretical examination and 10% of the oral and written presentation on a selected topic. Each one of the marks has to be passing (equal or higher than 5).
 

6TH SEMESTER

             
Course Title Compulsory/Elective Code Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
             

Advanced Cell Biology

Elective

612

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

6.0

Advanced Molecular & Applied Microbiology

Elective

603

3 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

4

5.5

Advanced Molecular Biology

Elective

615

4 Hrs/Wk

-

4

5.5

Animal Diversity

Elective

617

3 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

4

5.5

Aquaculture

Elective

605

3 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

4

5.5

Bioinformatics

Elective

614

3 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

4

5.5

Biophysics

Elective

606

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

6.0

Clinical Chemistry

Elective

607

3 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

4

5.5

Comparative Animal Physiology

Elective

808

3 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

4

5.5

 

DETAILED COURSES CONTENT OF SIXTH SEMESTER

ADVANCED CELL BIOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 612 6th 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 6.0
Syllabus:
 
 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (4 Hours): Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM). Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). Pseudo-coloring - 3D (three-dimensional) electron micrographs. Immuno-Electron Microscopy. Cryo-techniques. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Cell cultures. In situ hybridization. TUNEL assay. Analysis of a research article. Literature search and data mining. Preparation, elaboration and presentation of a scientific seminar.

BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES - LIPID RAFTS - CAVEOLAE (2 Hours): Formation and functions of lipid rafts. Lipid rafts topology. Pathways of intracellular transport and lipid rafts. Caveolae structure. Morphology and distribution. Formation and functions of caveolae. Caveolins.

STRUCTURE, BIOGENESIS AND CONGENITAL DISORDERS OF RED CELL (ERYTHROCYTE) MEMBRANE (4 Hours): Organization of red cell membrane. Major proteins and their genes. Arrangement of membrane and skeleton proteins. Hereditary Spherocytosis (HS), Hereditary Elliptocytosis (HE) and Hereditary Pyropoikilocytosis (HPP). Low expression alleles. Biogenesis of red cell proteins and abnormalities during biogenesis. Expression of erythroid-specific proteins in other tissues and organelles and non-erythroid pathology.

POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION - SORTING - TARGETING OF PROTEINS AND CELLULAR POLARITY (6 Hours): Compartmentalization - Fundamental pathways of protein sorting. “Gated” transport of biomolecules between cytosol and nucleus. Protein transport across membranes. Sorting, transport and protein targeting through a vesicle-mediated process. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). Golgi apparatus. Targeting and transport of lysosomal proteins. Protein exocytosis. Transport of molecules from extracellular space and plasma membrane inward to the cell. Mechanisms of vesicles formation and their specific fusion to the target membrane. The pathway of protein degradation in proteasome.

NUCLEAR - CYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT, NUCLEAR IMPORT OF PROTEINS (2 Hours): Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC), Structure, organization and functions of Nuclear Pore Complex. Nucleoporins. Signals and receptors of nuclear transport. Karyopherins. Signaling mechanisms of protein transport into the nucleus. Ran cycle.

CELLULAR FIBRILS - CYTOSKELETON (2 Hours): Dendritic nucleation of actin. Role of tropomodulin. Actin related - interacting proteins. Gelsolin family in mammals. Cadherin - catenin complexes. smGTPases. Dynamics of microtubules. Katanins - Stathmins. The role of Microtubule Organizing Centers (MTOCs). Centrosomes. Profilin. Plant hormones and cytoskeleton. Cytoplasmic filaments-related diseases.

MOLECULAR MOTOR PROTEIN MACHINES (2 Hours): Regulation of interactions between molecular motor proteins - cargo. Skilful molecular motor machines. Structure and function of myosin super-family members. Classification and structure of kinesins. Kinesin shuffling on microtubules. Controlling kinesin activity and function. Dynein structure and function. Regulation of Dynein activity. Dynein shuffling on microtubules. Locomotion of organelles and movement of protein complexes. Transportation of mRNPs.

SELF - ASSEMBLY, VIRUSES - PRIONS (4 Hours): Aided (Facilitated)-assembly of proteins. Molecular Chaperones of proteins. Self-assembly of collagen. Aided (Facilitated)-assembly of fibrin. Assembly of supramolecular structures. Directed-assembly of bacterial flagellum. The AIDS virus (HIV). Proteinaceous infection particles: Prions.

REGULATORY MECHANISMS OF SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION (4 Hours): Signal transduction and G-Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). Receptors bearing Serine - Threonine Kinase activities. TGF-β signal transduction. Smad transcription factors. Signal transduction and Cytokine Receptors. JAK (Just {Janus} Another Kinase) tyrosine kinases and STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) transcription factors. NF-kB signal transduction pathway. Principles of Hedgehog and Wnt signaling

IMPORT OF PROTEINS IN MITOCHONDRIA (4 Hours): Translocation complexes: TOM, TIM23, PAM, TIM22, SAM and export complexes. Targeting systems: amino-terminal pre-sequences for targeting, internal targeting sequences, alternative targeting sequences. Cytoplasmic factors and import of proteins in mitochondria. Contact points. Import of mitochondrial proteins into the mitochondrial compartments. Protein import into the external mitochondrial membrane. Protein import into the internal mitochondrial membrane. Import of proteins harboring an amino-terminal pre-sequence of targeting to mitochondria. Transport of proteins harboring a pre-sequence of targeting to mitochondrial matrix. Variations of mitochondrial protein import pathways.

IMPORT OF PROTEINS IN PEROXISOMES (4 Hours): Peroxins (Pexs). Assembly of peroxisome membrane. Signals for peroxisome membrane targeting. Roles of Pex19p and Pex3p in peroxisome membrane assembly. Types of peroxisome membrane proteins. Import of proteins into peroxisome matrix. PTS1 and PTS2 targeting signals - Pex5p and Pex7p receptors. Docking on peroxisome membrane. Translocation through peroxisome membrane. Receptor recycling. Formation of pre-entrance complexes. Peroxisome biogenesis. Peroxisome proliferation and division.

CELLULAR ORGANELLES - RELATED DISEASES (4 Hours): Human diseases with mitochondrial origin. Peroxisome-related diseases. Lysosome-related diseases.

CLONING OF MODEL ORGANISMS - CELLULAR AGING (4 Hours): Aging of cells. The phenotype of cellular senescence. Hayflick limit and telomerase. Organisms cloning. Techniques for cloning model organisms. Future perspectives - Ethical dilemmas.

CELLULAR TRANSFORMATION (NEOPLASIA) - CARCINOGENESIS (4 Hours): Growth characteristics of transformed (neoplastic) cells. Mechanisms promoting cellular transformation. Mutagens. Human Carcinogenesis. Differences between healthy and neoplastic cells. Proteins controlling cell growth and division. Molecular correlation between mortal and immortal cells.

PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH (PCD) - APOPTOSIS (2 Hours): Morphology of apoptosis. The role of Caspases in Programmed Cell Death. Intracellular translocation of proteins. The anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2. The participation of Cytochrome-c in Caspase repertoire activation and Apoptosome assembly. The role of neurotrophins. Deregulation of apoptotic mechanisms in mutated and genetically modified model organisms.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Isolation of chromatin - Observation of nucleosomes through Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). 2. - 3. Study of membrane proteins through Transmission Electron Microscope, after freeze-fracturing and freeze-etching. 4. Isolation and study of red cell (erythrocyte) sub-membrane proteins. 5. Immuno-histochemical localization of antigenic sites through avidin - biotin technology. 6. Immuno-localization through Transmission Electron Microscope. 7. Cell cultures.

 
Lecturers:
 
  Ι. Papassideri Associate Professor of Cellular & Developmental Biology - D. Stravopodis Assistant Professor of Cell Biology & Development - Ι. Trougakos Associate Professor of Animal Cell Biology & Electron Microscopy.
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Cell Biology, 4th Edition
Author: L. Margaritis
Publisher: Litsas Medical Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2008
ISBN: 960-372-077-1
 
Title: Regulatory Mechanisms of Cellular Operation
Author: G. Thomopoulos
Publisher: University Studio Press
Publication Place & Year: Salonika, 2006
ISBN: 960-12-1549-2
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Advanced Cell Biology - Laboratory Exercises and Additional Notes
Authors: L. Margaritis, Is. Papassideri
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2004
 
Notes:
 
  The examination on laboratory exercise material (contributing with a ratio of 30% in the final mark) is carried out during the implementation of each respective exercise, with the exception of exercises 2 and 3, where the written report of electron micrograph analysis and elaboration is also apprized. Seminars can be also recommended and they contribute with a ratio of 50% in the final mark of the course.
 

ADVANCED MOLECULAR AND APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 603 6th 3 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 4 5.5
Syllabus:
 
 

PART I: MOLECULAR MICROBIOLOGY

1. Basic research in model microbial systems (5 Hours). Microorganisms as model genetic and molecular systems for addressing basic biological questions-an introduction. Control of gene transcription: The lactose operon revisited Fungal model systems: Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus nidulans. Analysis of microbial genomes-functional genomics.

2. S. cerevisiae as a unique model system unique (6 Hours). Classical and reverse genetics. Transformation. Plasmid vectors. Methodologies of targeted knock-out/down, gene replacement, targeted mutagenesis or gene hyper-expression. The yeast database. Methodologies for studying protein-protein interactions.

3. Membrane trafficking in fungal systems (3 Hours). Exocytosis, Endocytosis, vacuolar turnover and post-Golgi sorting pathways. The role of endosomes. The role of ubiquitination and how the cell reads the ubiquitin code. How protein cargoes are recognized. How fungal genetics can contribute to the study of trafficking. The revolution of the green fluorescent protein and methodologies originating from it. The new microscopes and their contribution to in vivo studies of trafficking.  

4. Genetic suppression in fungi (3 Hours). Genetic suppression as a unique tool for studying structure-function relationships and protein interactions. UapA as a paradigmatical case: understanding the structure, function and specificity relationships in a transmembrane transporter.

5. Translational control (1 Hour). The general control system for amino acid biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae.

.PART II: ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY

1. Aquatic Microbial Ecosystem (4 Hours): The nature of the aquatic ecosystem. Significant microbial populations. The Carbon Cycle. Management of the aquatic ecosystems. Sequestration of nutrition from water, aerobic secondary process of industrial effluents, anaerobic bioreactors. Purification of drinkable water, filtration, microbial analysis. Waterborne diseases. Quality of terrestrial water and domestic processing systems.

2. Terrestrial Microbial Ecosystem (4 Hours): The texture of the terrestrial environment and the contribution of the microorganisms. Important microbial populations. Interaction of soil microorganisms with the atmosphere. Biodegredation. Bioremediation. Microbial parasiticides and their use in agriculture.

3. Atmosphere Microbiology (2 Hours): Techniques of sampling gas samples. Important microbial populations. Origin of the atmosphere microorganisms. Airborne diseases.

4. Methods in Microbial Ecology (2 Hours): Assessment of the microbial parameters and molecular techniques. Model systems of ecophysiological studies. Microcosms.

PART ΙΙΙ: CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY (6 Hours): Pathogenic microorganisms. Diseases control. Methodology of pathogenicity assessment. Antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. Historical retrospection, categories (antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral), chemical characteristics, methodology of activity assessment, mechanisms of activity. Antibiotics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Toxins.

PART IV: FOOD MICROBIOLOGY (4 Hours): Food spoilage microorganisms. Food preservation. Foodborne diseases. Microorganisms as food resource, microbiology of fermented foods. Enzymes used in food. New technologies in food industry.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Principles in Molecular Cloning. 2. Transformation of competent bacterial cells and selection of recombinant plasmids. 3. Selection of suppressor mutations of Aspergillus nidulans. 4. Transformation of filamentous fungus. 5. Decoding of DNA sequences in silico. 6. Bacterial biodegradation of napthalenium. 7. Standard analysis of water. 8-9. Variations in the observed growth yield: evaluation in batch and continuous cultures. 10. Fermentation of milk to yogurt. 11-12. Dairy industry and beer productive industry: a visit and evaluation of industrial microbiological applications.

 
Lecturers:
 
  Α. Karagounis - Kyrtsou Professor of Microbiology - G. Diallinas Professor of Molecular Microbiology - D. Hatzinikolaou Assistant Professor of Microbial Biotechnology.
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Biology of Microorganisms - Vol. II
Authors: Brock, Madigan, Martinko, Parker
Publisher: FORTH - University of Crete Press
Publication Place & Year: Heraklion, 2008
ISBN: 978-960-524-201-5
 
Title: GENES VIII
Author: Benjamin Lewin
Publisher: Academic Publications J. Basdra & Co
Publication Place & Year: Alexandroupolis, 2004
ISBN:  
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Laboratory Exercises - Notes
Authors: Α. Karagounis - Kyrtsou, G. Diallinas, D. Hatzinikolaou
Publication Place: Athens,
Publication Year:  
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical examination contributes 30% to the final mark and the grade of the theory examination contributes 70%. Passing marks on both examinations are required.
 

ADVANCED MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 615 6th 4 Hrs/Wk - 4 5.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Structure and organisation of eukaryotic DNA (20 Hours): Coding potential, c-value paradox. Unique and repeated sequences. Reassociation kinetics of DNA and RNA. Unique and repeated genes. Multigene families. Molecular mechanisms for creation and conservation of organization of DNA sequences and/or genes. Molecular evolutionary mechanisms. The gene families of globins, histones and ribosomal RNA. Satellite DNA. The DNA of mitochondria. Types and structural characteristics of mobile elements.

Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Structure and expression of retroviruses (18 Hours): Levels of regulation. Regulatory mechanisms. Transcription factors. Expression and regulation of globin genes. Retroviruses, T-lymphotropic viruses, the HIV virus.

Transgenic organisms (10 Hours): Introduction and expression of cloned eukaryotic genes in bacteria. Applications of genetic engineering in plant organisms. Transgenic animals. Targeted incorporation of foreign genes in the mouse genome. Problems and prospects of recombinant DNA technology.

 
Lecturers:
 
  G. Rodakis Professor of Molecular and Evolutionary Biology - S. Tsitilou Associate Professor in Molecular Biology of Eukaryotic Organisms.
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Molecular Bioloogy of the Gene
Authors: J. Watson, T. Baker, S. Bell, A. Gann, M. Levine, R. Losick
Publisher: Utopia Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2011
ISBN: 978-960-98123-1-3
 
Title: Recombinant DNA: Genes and Genomes - a Short Course
Authors: Watson, Caudy, Myers, Witkowski
Publisher: Academic Publications J. Basdra & Co
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2007
ISBN: 978-960-88412-5-3
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Advanced Molecular Biology Topics
Authors: G. Rodakis, R. Lecanidou, S. Tsitilou
Publication Place: Athens  
Publication Year: 2006
 
Notes:
 
   
 

ANIMAL DIVERSITY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 617 6th 3 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 4 5.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction (3 Hours). Definition. The components of animal diversity. The measurement of diversity.

Comparative view of the structure and function of animals (10 Hours). Differentiation of body plans. Structural and functional adaptations.

The distribution of animals in space and time (11 Hours). The distribution of animals in space. Zoogeographical provinces. Endemism. Areas of high diversity and endemism. Island zoogeography. The differentiation of animal diversity in time.

The importance and conservation of animals (6 Hours). Threats to animal species. The conservation of animals.

The diversity of the fauna of Greece (6 Hours). Species, descriptions, behaviour, geographical distribution, threats, conservation measures.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Comparative study of limbs and movement. 2. Study of morphological adaptations of insects. 3. Faunal comparisons, historical biogeography, phylogeography. 4. Island biogeography. 5. Case studies of conservation plans of animals in Greece. 6. Terrestrial arthropods: methods of study and identification of major groups. 7. Amphibians and reptiles: methods of study, identification and diversity in Greece. 8. Birds: methods of study, diversity in the Balkans and migration. 9. Mammals: methods of study, identification of skulls and tracks and analysis of pellets. 10. Field exercise.

 
Lecturers:
 
  Α. Legakis Associate Professor of Animal Diversity - P. Pafilis Assistant Professor of Animal Diversity - R. Polymeni Assistant Professor of Ecology - Systematics of Animals
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Biodiversity: An Introduction
Authors: K. Gaston, J. Spicer
Publisher: University Studio Press
Publication Place & Year: Salonika, 2002
ISBN: 960-12-1063-6
 
Title: Island Biogeography
Author: Whittaker R.J., Fernandez - Palacios J.M
Publisher: FORTH - University of Crete Press
Publication Place & Year: Heraklion, 2009
ISBN: 978-960-524-283-Χ
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Animal Diversity
Authors: A. Legakis, R.-M. Polymeni, S. Gkiokas, C. Sotiropoulos
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2010
 
Title: Animal Diversity - Laboratory Exercises
Authors: A. Legakis, R.-M. Polymeni, I. Anastasiou, Ch. Georgiadis, G. Yannatos, S. Gkiokas, C. Sotiropoulos
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2010
 
Notes:
 
  Laboratory exercises involve a 25% rating in the course mark, the field work a 15% and theory a 60%. The practicals mark results from the evaluation of the exercises reports.
 

AQUACULTURE

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 605 6th 3 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 4 5.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Historical review (3 Hours): Short historical review of the European Aquaculture

PART I: Aquaculture, Types and Stages (9 Hours): Definition of aquaculture, significance of the aquaculture, the objective of the modern aquaculture, types and stages of processing in aquaculture, rural programs for coastal aquacultures in the Mediterranean, energy potential of the natural environment.

PART II: Environmental conditions (9 Hours): Water - aquatic medium of culture, directives and regulations for the quality of water for aquacultures, marine pollution, marine ecotoxicological experiments for fishes, Pollution - Disturbance - Aquacultures.

PART III: Production of live feed (6 Hours): Rotifers - Biology - Culture techniques for Artemia - the role of Artemia in the ecosystem of the saltworks. Feed and growth of mussels in the laboratory.

PART IV (9 Hours): Case study of an aquaculturing unit. Vertical unit for marine and fresh water production. Common fish diseases.

PART V (6 Hours): Hatcheries (Buildings, equipment, closed and open water systems, biological waste disposal, operational costs).

 
Practicals:
 
 

Laboratory Experiments: 1. Assessment of aquacultures, impact on the marine ecosystem and environmental studies 2. Artemia - live feed - culture 3. Embryology of Sparus aurata and Dicentrarchus labrax L. 4. Hatcheries 5. Ichthiopathology 6. Environment - Aquacultures 7. Acute toxicity tests 8. Blood characteristics of fish and feeding 9. Culture of Astacus astacus.

Seminars: 1. Seminars by experts in the above fields with emphasis on Communal and National funding 2. Seminars by students based on the existing bibliography in the laboratory 3. Study on specific applied subjects arising from the field experiments.

Field Experiments: 1. Saltworks (Theve or Messolonghi) 2. Aquaculturing plants and Auction halls (Evoia) 3. Semi intensive culture of trout and Astacus astacus (Orchomenos) 4. Processing plant (Koropi) 5. Hatchery (Nafpaktos) and shell culture (Itea).

 
Lecturers:
 
  P. Megalofonou, Associate Professor of Ichthyology - Α. Nikolaidou, Professor of Marine Biology - P. Pafilis Assistant Professor of Animal Diversity.
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Introduction to Aquaculture
Author: S. Papoutsoglou
Publisher: Stamoulis Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 1997
ISBN: 960-351-121-8
 
Title: Construction of Aqua Farming Systems
Authors: S. Klaoudatos, D. Klaoudatos
Publisher: Propompos Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2010
ISBN: 978-960-7860-81-1
 
Lab Manuals:
 
 
Notes:
 
  The Laboratory Experiments participate by 40% in the final mark. In addition, 10% of the mark arises from the other activities (seminars, educational excursions). The mark for the laboratory arises from separate practical examinations.
 

BIOINFORMATICS

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 614 6th 3 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 4 5.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (1 Hour) - Elements of Computer Science – Computer Applications in Biology (3 Hours) - Operating Systems (Unix / Windows) – Introduction to PERL (6 Hours) - Computer networks and their uses (email, telnet, ftp…) - Internet – World Wide Web (www) - Web browsers – Web pages - HTML / XML (2 Hours) - Protein and DNA Databases – Specialized Protein and DNA Databases – Annotation problems (2 Hours) - Protein and Genome Information Resources and Tools (2 Hours) - Genome Projects (1 Hour) - Next level of the genetic code - Protein folding - Protein-protein interactions - Metabolic pathways – Protein assembly and self-assembly (3 Hours) - Genome Analysis - Difficulties in experimental determination of protein structure and function - Structural Genomics (1 Hour) - Computational Analysis to bridge the ‘gap’: 1. Data Base Management Systems - 2. Data Mining - Computational analysis of sequences: Α. Similarity based Methods (alignment of pairs of sequences – similarity matrices – statistical parameters of alignment similarity – global and local alignment – heuristic methods of alignment (FASTA and ΒLAST algorithms) – multiple sequence alignment – phylogenetic trees) - Searching and finding motifs (3 Hours) - Β.  Empirical methods / A priori methods (2 Hours) - C. Μachine Learning Techniques (Neural Networks, Ηidden Markov Models etc.) (2 Hours) -Analysis of DNA sequences (e.g ΟRFs prediction etc.) (1 Hour) - Analysis of protein sequences and structures (1 Hour) - Algorithms for protein secondary structure prediction (1 Hour) -Finding periodicities in protein and DNA sequences (1 Hour) - Prediction of transmembrane segments and topology of membrane proteins (1 Hour) - Fold recognition methods (1 Hour) - Protein structure comparison and alignment (1 Hour) - Comparative homology modelling and threading (1 Hour) - Modelling of protein conformation utilizing molecular mechanics and dynamics (1 Hour) - Principles and methods of ligand docking to proteins – Drug design (1 Hour) - Protein – protein docking (1 Hour)

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Introduction to Windows - Bioinformatics in the web - HTML and web pages – Literature search - Data mining from Biological Databases 2. Introduction to Unix  (I) 3. Introduction to Unix  (II) 4. Protein and Nucleic acid Databases - Specialized Protein and Nucleic acid Databases - Analysis Tools of Nucleic acid and Protein Sequence and Structure Databases 5-8. Perl Programming for Biologists - Bioinformatics Applications 9. BLAST – FASTA -– CLUSTAL – Tools for similarity searches and multiple sequence alignments 10. Finding motifs and periodicities in Nucleic acid and Protein sequences 11. Prediction algorithms (Secondary structure, Structure and Topology of membrane proteins, Signal peptide, Subcellular location etc.) 12. Analysis of protein-protein interactions, protein networks and biological pathways 13. Simple applications of Neural networks and HMM’s in Bioinformatics.

 
Lecturers:
 
  S. J. Hamodrakas Professor of Biophysics & Computational Biology - Bioinformatics
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Bioinformatics: A Practical Guide to the Analysis of Genes and Proteins
Authors: Baxevanis AD, Ouellette BFF (Greek Edition Editors: Moundrianakis Ε. Ν., Hamodrakas S. J.)
Publisher: Parisianos Scientific Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2004
ISBN: 960-394-222-7
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Bioinformatics - Laboratory Exercises
Author: Hamodrakas S. J.
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2008
 
Notes:
 
  The grades of the Practicals contribute 50% to the Final grade.
 

BIOPHYSICS

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 606 6th 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 6.0
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction (10 Hours): Goals and branches of Biophysics, Weak interactions and their role in life phenomena, Structure of H2O and its role in the folding and interactions of biomolecules, Principles of Stereochemistry, Conformation-Molecular models- Symmetry, Conformational analysis of biomicro- and macromolecules, Molecular modelling,  Folding of biomacromolecules,  Liquid crystals.

Molecular Biophysics (36 Hours):

Protein Architecture:

Globular, water-soluble proteins: Amino acid sequence, Secondary structure, Super-secondary structure, Domains, Tertiary structure, Protein-protein interactions.

Membrane proteins: Hydrophobicity and protein-lipid interactions, Membrane protein structure. Energy and signal transduction – molecular machines (bacteriorhodopsin, rhodopsin etc.), GPCRs, G-proteins and effectors

Fibrous (Structural) proteins: Keratins, Silks, Collagens, etc

Biopolymers/Biomaterials, Amyloids-amyloidoses

Polysaccharides (Chitin, Cellulose) and bipartite fibrous composite protein-polysaccharide systems (e.g cuticle)

Theoretical methods for structure prediction of biomicro- and macromolecules - Applications.

Analysis of structure and function of biomolecules and biomolecular complex structures – Principles of methodologies and applications: X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, electron diffraction, laser diffraction,    X-ray crystallography - Applications - Vibrational spectroscopies (IR and Raman) - Applications - O.R.D and C.D spectroscopy - Applications - E.S.R and N.M.R spectroscopy - Applications.

Cellular Biophysics (6 Hours):

Molecular Recognition (Structure and function of drugs, neurotransmitters, etc.).

Biophysics of Sensory systems with emphasis on the Photoreceptor.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Use of molecular models – Conformational analysis utilizing molecular models – Polypeptide chains. 2. Conformational analysis of biomicro- and macromolecules utilizing semi-empirical classical energy calculations. 3. Macromolecular Structure and Sequence Databases and analysis tools in the web. 4. Databases for structural classification of proteins (CATH, SCOP, PFAM ). 5. Structural studies of biomacromolecules utilizing molecular graphics programs 6. Protein secondary structure prediction. 7. Prediction of structure and topology of transmembrane proteins. 8. Protein crystallization (lysozyme as an example). 9. Laser-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy: Collection, analysis and interpretation of spectra from biomolecules and biomolecular structures. 10. X-ray diffraction studies of fibrous biomolecular structures. 11. Laser/Electron diffraction studies of biological structures.

 
Lecturers:
 
  S. J. Hamodrakas Professor of Biophysics & Computational Biology - Bioinformatics - V. A. Iconomidou Lecturer of Biophysics - Molecular Biophysics.
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Topics in Molecular Biophysics
Author: S. J. Hamodrakas
Publisher: Athanassopoulos Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 1993
ISBN: 978-960-266-138-3
 
Title: Introduction to Protein Structure
Authors: Carl Branden, John Tooze
Publisher: Academic Publications J. Basdra & Co
Publication Place & Year: Alexandroupolis, 2006
ISBN: 960-88412-4-0
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Biophysics - Laboratory Exercises
Authors: S. J. Hamodrakas, V. A. Iconomidou
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2008
 
Notes:
 
  The grades of the Practicals contribute 30% to the Final grade.
 

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 607 6th 3 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 4 5.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction to Clinical Chemistry – Clinical Biochemistry (2 Hours): Definitions, up-to-date trends. Safety and hygiene rules in the clinical and biochemical laboratory, particularities, deontology.

Basic concepts of pathobiochemistry of the urogenital and hepatobiliary system. (3 Hours).

The use of enzymes in Clinical Biochemistry (3 Hours): Biochemical laboratory tests for cardiac function. Hepatic, biliary and pancreatic enzymes. Laboratory tests for renal and hepatic function.

Hormones and laboratory tests for hormones (5 Hours): Hormones of the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland. Biochemical tests for the function of the thyroid gland. Parathyroid gland and calcium metabolism. Hormones of the gastrointestinal system. Reproduction hormones. Diabetes mellitus.

Sampling, maintenance and properties of biological materials (2 Hours): Blood collection, types of blood specimens, hemolysis, blood coagulation, and anticoagulants. Urine, semen, prostatic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid.

Quality test in Clinical Chemistry- Clinical Biochemistry Laboratories  and assessment of diagnostic tests (7 Hours): Basic concepts of Biostatistics. Internal quality control, external quality control, calibration of instruments. Reference values, criteria used for selecting the proper diagnostic procedure, basic concepts of Epidemiology, ROC analysis

Methodology and automatisms in Clinical Chemistry- Clinical Biochemistry (5 Hours): Basic concepts, immunochemical identification- ELISA, immunohistochemistry. Radioisotopes, safety rules in laboratories using radioisotopes, rules for handling and disposing solid or liquid radioactive waste. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and Immunordiometric Assay (IRMA). Automatic biochemical analyzers.

Introduction to Molecular Diagnostics - methods (6 Hours): Definitions, current applications. Cystic fibrosis, Gaucher’s Disease, Muscular dystrophy, hepatitis, AIDS, cytomegalovirus (CMV), basic metabolic diseases. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): variations and applications in molecular diagnosis. Mutations’ analysis methods, microarrays.

Pathobiochemistry and Molecular Diagnostics of cancer - tumor biomarkers (3 Hours): Introduction and basic concepts. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Diagnostic and prognostic markers for: gynaecological tumors, head and neck cancer, leukemia and lymphoma, glioma and sarcoma, gastrointestinal cancer, lung cancer, skin cancer, tumors of the urogenital system.

Pathobiochemistry and Molecular Diagnostics of cardiovascular Diseases- cardiac biomarkers (3 hours): Introduction and basic concepts. Atheromatosis, thrombosis, genes, risk factors, diagnostic and prognostic markers.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Laboratory examination of renal function- detection of pregnancy: General urine examination, determination of creatinine levels, renal plasma clearance method, immunochromatography assay for pregnancy detection. 2. Laboratory examination of dyslipidemia: Enzymatic determination of total cholesterol, determination of triglycerides, determination of HDL, VLDL, LDL cholesterol in the serum. Statistical elaboration and analysis of the results. 3. Hepatic laboratory tests- Laboratory examination of myocardial infarction: Assessment of the enzyme activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartic aminotransferase and Lactate dehydrogenase in the serum. Statistical analysis of the results. 4. - 5. Tumor biomarkers- Introduction to molecular diagnostics- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - ROC analysis: Detection of overexpression of the ΕRΒΒ2 oncogene in breast cancer and analysis of the diagnostic value of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer. Seminars for the demonstration of instruments used in automated clinical analysis.

 
Lecturers:
 
  Α. Scorilas Professor of Clinical Biochemistry
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Principles of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics
Author: Andreas Scorilas
Publisher: Symmetria Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2009
ISBN: 978-960-266-271-7
 
Title: Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Manual
Author: Andreas Scorilas
Publisher: Symmetria Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2009
ISBN: 978-960-266-264-9
 
Title: Clinical Chemistry
Authors: Α. Κaplan et al - Translated by A. Kalafoutis
Publisher: Paschalidis Medical Publications
Publication Place & Year: Αthens, 2003
ISBN: 960-399-148-1
 
Notes:
 
  Laboratory practice contributes 20% to the final mark. The laboratory practice exam takes place at the same time with the theory exam.
 

COMPARATIVE ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 808 6th 3 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 4 5.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Comparative study of normal functional differentiation of systems in various animal tribes (2 Hours)

Nervous System (4 Hours): Study of the nervous system of various animal taxa, memory and learning, differences of nervous cells between vertebrates and invertebrates.

Sensory physiology (4 Hours): Chemoreception, mechanoreception, electroreception, photoreception.

Circulatory system (5 Hours): Structure, of circulatory system in invertebrates (open) and vertebrates (close).

Respiratory system (4 Hours): Structure of the respiratory system in various animal taxa, evolution of respiratory systems in vertebrates, adaptations of respiratory systems

Endocrine system (4 Hours): Study of Endocrine systems in vertebrates and invertebrates taxa

Osmoregulation and excretion (4 Hours): The problem of water balance, solution, Excretory systems of various animal taxa

Motor muscle, structure and function (2 Hours)

Digestion (3 Hours)

Thermoregulation (3 Hours)

Energy metabolism (2 Hours)

Comparative immunology (2 Hours)

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Influence of temperature in the functions of sciatic nerve of frog. 2. Cell Transport Mechanism and Permeability. 3. Bioenergetics-Quantify of ATP, I. 4. Bioenergetics- Quantify of ATP, II. 5. Cardiovascular dynamics and Cardiovascular Physiology (Vertebrates). 6. Mechanisms of maintenance of acidbase balance of the cell. 7. Saturation curve of hemoglobin in vertebrates. 8. Study of the digestion in vertebrates and invertebrates taxa. 9. Hormones and color in the frog. 10. Comparative immunology. 11. Study of metabolic rate. 12. Osmoregulation.

 
Lecturers:
 
  Ε. Valakos Associate Professor of Comparative Animal Physiology - Ecophysiology S. Efthimiopoulos Associate Professor of Animal & Human Physiology - Neurobiology - P. Papazafiri Associate Professor of Animal Physiology - O. Tsitsilonis Assistant Professor of Immunology - I. - K. Aggeli Assistant Professor of Animal Physiology.
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Environmental Physiology of Animals - Vol. Ι: Comparative Physiology
Authors: Willmer Pat, Stone Graham, Johnson Ian - Editor: Is. Beis
Publisher: Vivliopolis
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2008
ISBN: 960-87714-3-9
 
Title: Environmental Physiology of Animals - Vol. IΙ: Physiological Adaptations
Authors: Willmer Pat, Stone Graham, Johnson Ian - Editor: Is. Beis
Publisher: Vivliopolis
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2010
ISBN: 960-87714-4-7
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: How animals operate
Authors: Nielsen, Is. Beis
Publication Place: Athens  
Publication Year: 1983
 
Title: Comparative Animal Physiology - Laboratory Manual
Authors: Is Beis, C. Gaitanaki, E. Valakos
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2007
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical section of the course accounts for 20% of the final mark.
 

7TH SEMESTER

             
Course Title Compulsory/Elective Code Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
             

Biological Oceanography

Elective

704

3 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

4

5.5

Developmental Biology & Histology

Elective

703

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

6.0

DIPLOMA THESIS

Compulsory

801

-

-

7.5

17

Evolutionary Biology

Compulsory

708

5 Hrs/Wk

-

5

7.0

Ichthyology

Elective

705

2 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

3

4.0

Molecular Biology of Development

Elective

707

4 Hrs/Wk

-

4

5.5

Surface Water Ecosystems

Elective

709

2 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

3

4.0

 

DETAILED COURSES CONTENT OF SEVENTH SEMESTER

BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 704 7th 3 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 4 5.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction to the marine environment (4 Hours) - Plankton and plankton communities (4 Hours) - Deep sea biology (4 Hours) - Shallow-water subtidal benthic associations (4 Hours) - Oceanic nekton (3 Hours) - Intertidal ecology (4 Hours) - Meiofauna (2 Hours) - Estuaries and Salt marshes (4 Hours) - Tropical communities (4 Hours) - Symbiotic relationships (2 Hours) - Human impact on the sea (4 Hours).

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Sampling methods. 2. Holoplankton I. 3. Holoplankton II. 4. Meroplankton. 5. Nekton. 6. Biometry. 7. Benthic functional groups. 8. Benthos of hard substrata. 9. Benthos of soft substrata. 10. Species of the Mediterranean.

 
Lecturers:
 
  Α. Nikolaidou Professor of Marine Biology - G. Verriopoulos Professor of Marine Biology
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Marine Biology
Author: J. W. Nybakken
Publisher: Ion Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2005
ISBN: 960-411-511-1
 
Title: Marine Biology
Authors: P. Castro, M. E. Huber
Publisher: University Studio Press
Publication Place & Year: Salonika, 1999
ISBN: 960-12-0769-4
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Biological Oceanography - Laboratory Exercises Guide
Authors: A. Nikolaidou, G. Verroiopoulos, M. Thessalou - Legaki
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2007
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical work (experiment reports and practical examination) contributes 40% to the final mark and the mark of the theory examination contributes 60%. Passing marks in both examinations are required.
 

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 703 7th 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 6.0
Syllabus:
 
 

Sexual behavior. Reproduction. Physiology of fertilization. Birth control (2 Hours)

Current aspects on pattern formation  (2 Hours)

The role of positional information, morphogens and cellular interactions on histogenesis and morphogenesis (2 Hours)

Cleavage, gastrulation, neurulation, histogenesis, organogenesis, in various animal species  (14 Hours)

The role of induction on embryogenesis. Proximate tissue interactions  (4 Hours)

Oncogenes and growth factors (2 Hours)

Tissue and organ regeneration (4 Hours)

Autonomous and experimental carcinogenesis (4 Hours)

Histology. Microscopic anatomy. Histopathology (18 Hours): Organs and methods, review of embryonic development, neural tissue, epithelial tissues, connective tissues, muscle tissues, body systems.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Windowing and study of chick embryo, in ovo. 2. Intracoelomic transplantation. Limb bud. 3. - 4. Classical histological techniques. 5. Mitotic and labeling index. 6. - 9. Embryonic development of sea urchin, frog, chick, mammal, respectively. 10. - 13. Microscopic anatomy (study of histological slides).

 
Lecturers:
 
  Is. PapassideriAssociate Professor of Cellular & Developmental Biology - D. Stravopodis, Assistant Professor of Cell Biology & Development - Ι. Trougakos Associate Professor of Animal Cell Biology & Electron Microscopy - V. Iconomidou, Lecturer of Biophysics - Molecular Biophysics
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Introduction to Developmental Biology and Histology, 2nd Edition
Author: S. L. Koussoulakos
Publisher: Parisianos Scientific Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2007
ISBN: 978-960-394-312-9
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Developmental Biology and Histology Exercises
Author: S. L. Koussoulakos
Publication Place: Athens
 
Publication Year:  
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical work, obtained from separate examination, contributes 20% to the final mark. Passing marks in both theoretical and practical examinations are required.
 

EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Compulsory 708 7th 5 Hrs/Wk - 5 6.5
Syllabus:
 
 

The evolutionary thought (10 Ηours): Evolutionary Biology as science — Epistemological background — Historical flashback — Evolutionary theories: Lamarckism, Darwinism, modern evolutionary synthesis (Neo-Darwinism), neutralists — Current -molecular- view.

From the Big Bang to the Protobiont (12 Hours): Creation of the universe — The solar system and the abiotic environment in the primitive Earth — Stochastic events and the nature of Natural Selection — The chemical basis of the origin of life: abiotic synthesis of organic substances, abiotic synthesis of polymers and complex molecular aggregates — The RNA world — The RNP world and the transition to the DNA world.

First organisms (10 Hours): Hypotheses about the protobiont’s genome — Hypotheses about the origin of the eukaryotic cell — Taxonomic levels — How many species are there? — Cladistics versus phenetics — Elements of evolutionary trees — Constructing the universal evolutionary tree — Kingdoms or Domains? The molecular approach — “Rooting” the universal tree).

Evolutionary time and patterns of life (16 Hours): Evolutionary time and evolutionary events — geological divisions, dating methods — Stromatolites and fossils — Precambrian life — Cambrian explosion — Factors affecting the radiation of organisms — “Missing links” or “punctuated equilibrium and stasis”? — Isolation mechanisms and patterns of speciation — Adaptive and non-adaptive radiation — Mass extinctions and their consequences — Human evolution.

Mechanisms of evolution in organismic and molecular level (17 Hours): Elements of population genetics — Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium — Linkage disequilibrium — Origin of mutations, nucleotide substitutions and the genetic code bias — The concept of the evolutionary divergence and convergence — Molecular mechanisms for DNA duplications and deletions, unequal crossing over, slippage of DNA strands, transposition and retrotransposition — Sequence convergence via reciprocal and not reciprocal recombination — Factors affecting the fate of a new mutation — Deterministic and stochastic mathematical models — Natural selection — The importance of the “fitness” concept — Codominance and overdominance — Models and examples of action of natural selection — Random genetic drift — Probability, time and rate of fixation under stochastic models — Estimation of phylogenetic distances.

 
Lecturers:
 
  G. Rodakis Professor of Molecular and Evolutionary Biology - Ε. Valakos Associate Professor of Comparative Animal Physiology - Ecophysiology - Α. Legakis Associate Professor of Animal Diversity
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Introduction to Evolutionary Biology
Author: G. K. Rodakis
Publisher: Litsas Medical Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2001
ISBN: 960-372-049-6
 
Title: Evolutionary Biology
Authors: Douglas Futuyma - Translation: L. Zouros, D. Kollaros, A. Magoulas, T. Machias, E. Roidou
Publisher: FORTH - University of Crete Press
Publication Place & Year: Heraklion, 2009 
ISBN: 960-7309-20-0
 
Title: Introduction to Evolution
Author: Stamatis N. Alahiotis
Publisher: Nea Synora - Livanis Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2007
ISBN: 978-960-14-1561-1
 
Notes:
 
   
 

ICHTHYOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective
Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 705 7th 2 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 3 4.0
Syllabus:
 
 

General Morphology of Fish - Systematics (4 Hours): External morphology and systematic characters. Internal structure and evolutionary relationships of the various systems..

Reproduction (4 Hours): Anatomy of the Reproductive system, maturity, fecundity, gametogenesis, sex-determination, hermaphroditism and reproductive strategies. Embryological and early development in Fishes.

Feeding, Nutrition and Growth (6 Hours): Feeding strategies and morphological adaptations. Mechanisms of food intake. Nutrition. Age, growth and von Bertalanffy equation.

Ecology and Behavior (8 Hours): Zoogeography of Fishes. Factors affecting the distribution. Adaptations to extreme environments. Locomotor responses to stimuli. Swimming. Communication and interactions. Symbiosis, predation and parasitism. Shoaling. Migrations.

Fish Population Studies (4 Hours): Characteristics of fish populations. Exponential and logistic increase of population.  Fishing and natural mortality. Stock evaluation models. Fish marking techniques.

Fisheries and stock management  (2 Hours): Fishing technology, fish production and fishing effort. Fishery impact on the stocks and marine ecosystems.  Management.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. External anatomy of a bony fish, meristic and morphometric measurements. 2. Taxonomy and fish identification. 3. Internal anatomy of a bony fish, gonad maturity stages (microscopic and macroscopic study). 4. External anatomy of a shark, meristic and morphometric measurements. 5. Internal anatomy of a shark, gonad maturity stages and fecundity. 6. Age estimation methods and techniques. Otolith extraction. 7. Estimation of growth parameters (von Bertalanffy  equation). 8. Size distributions, length-weight relationships. 9. Applications of FishBase. 10. Observing fish behavior (aquarium study). 11. Sampling and study of fish (field and laboratory exercise). 12. Class presentations and written report due.

Educational excursion: Visit Keratsini fish auction - Sampling.

 
Lecturers:
 
 

P. Megalofonou Associate Professor of Ichthyology (Coordinator) - Α. Nikolaidou Professor of Marine Biology - P. Pafilis Assistant Professor of Animal Diversity - Practicals: In laboratory exercises is also involved H. Galenou Teaching Assistant

 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Ichthyology
Author: Ch. Neophytou
Publisher: University Studio Press
Publication Place & Year: Salonika, 1996
ISBN: 960-12-0579-9
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Fish Ecology & Ethology - Vol. I
Author: P. Megalofonou
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2008
 
Title: Ichthyology Laboratory Guide - Vol. II
Author: P. Megalofonou
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2009
 
Notes:
 
  The practical work contributes 50% to the final mark. The mark of the practical work arises from the evaluation of the practical exercises and separate practical examinations.
 

 

In laboratory exercises is also involved

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENT

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 707 7th 4 Hrs/Wk - 4 5.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Theories of Cellular Differentiation (2 Hours).

Mechanisms of Differentiation in the unicellular and simple multicellular organisms (4 Hours): a) Bacteria -Bacillus subtilis, b) Saccharomyces cerevisiae c) Dictyostelium discoideum.

Mechanisms of Cellular Differentiation (16 Hours): Stability of DNA in specialized cell types. Rearrangements and amplification of DNA during development. Transcriptional gene regulation in the various cellular types. Post-transcriptional regulation during development (sex-determination in Drosophila). Translation and post-translation regulation during development.

Cellular growth and division (8 Hours): a) The steps of the cell cycle, b) Regulatory mechanisms of cell division in multicellular organisms, c) Mechanisms for transmission of messages from the cell membrane receptors, d) Apoptosis.

Cancer and oncogenes (4 Hours).

Oogenesis in amphibians and insects. Sex-determination in C. elegans (4 Hours).

Molecular Biology of fertilization. In vitro fertilization-Transgenic animals (4 Hours).

Pattern formation in C. elegans, insects, amphibians and mammals (4 Hours).

Genetic control of pattern formation in Drosophila (6 Hours): Maternal effect genes. Segmentation genes. Homeotic gene.

 
Lecturers:
 
 

S. Kouyanou - Koutsoukou Associate Professor of Molecular & Developmental Genetics - Κ. Lamnissou Associate Professor of Genetics - Human Molecular Genetics

 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Essential Developmental Biology, 2nd Edition - Translation
Author: JMW Slack
Publisher: Academic Publications J. Basdra & Co
Publication Place & Year: Alexandroupolis, 2007
ISBN: 960-88412-3-2
 
Title: GENES VIII (Vol. ΙΙ), Greek Edition 2004
Author: Benjamin Lewin
Publisher: Academic Publications J. Basdra & Co
Publication Place & Year: Alexandroupolis, 2004
ISBN: 960-884-1120-8B
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Molecular Biology of Development Course Notes
Authors: K. Komitopoulou - S. Kougianou - Koutsoukou
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 1998
 
Notes:
 
   
 

SURFACE WATER ECOSYSTEMS

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 709 7th 2 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 3 4.0
Syllabus:
 
 

1. Introduction, 2. Water as a substance: The characteristics of Water, 3. Rivers and Lakes - Their distribution, origins, and forms, 4. Water Economy: Hydrological cycles. Global water balance, 5. Light in Inland Waters, 6. Fate of Heat, 7. Water movements, 8. Structure and Productivity of Aquatic Ecosystems, 9. Oxygen, 10. Salinity of Inland Waters, 11. The Inorganic Carbon complex, 12. The Nitrogen Cycle, 13. The Phosphorus cycle, 14. Iron, Sulphur, and Silica cycles, 15. Planktonic communities: Algae and Cyanobacteria, 16. Planktonic communities: Zooplankton and their interaction with fish, 17. Bacterioplankton, 18. Land-Water interfaces: Larger plants, 19. Land-Water interfaces: Attached microorganisms, littoral algae, and zooplankton, 20. Shallow lakes and ponds, 21. Sediments and microflora, 22. Benthic animals and fish communities, 23. Detritus: Organic carbon cycling and ecosystem metabolism, 24. Past productivity: Paleolimnology, 25. The ontogeny of inland aquatic ecosystems, 26. Inland waters: Understanding is essential for the future.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Morphometry of surface waters. The watershed. Selection of sampling sites and methods. 2. Collection of plankton and periphyton in lakes and rivers. Use of hydrobiological instruments. 3. Estimation of primary productivity (oxygen method, 14C method). 4. In situ measurements of major physical and chemical parameters of surface waters (temperature, oxygen, light, pH). 5. Determination of major ion concentrations (P-PO4, N-NO3, N-NO2, N-NH3, Si-SiO2). 6. Qualitative analysis of plankton samples under the light and scanning microscopes. 7. Quantitative analysis of phytoplankton (Utermöhl method, etc.). 8. Determination of phytoplankton biomass by chlorophyll estimations. 9. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of periphyton. 10. Spermatophytes of the littoral zone. 11. Application of ecological methods for the assessment of water quality (saprobic system, bio-indices, etc.). 12. The invertebrates of the littoral zone and their use as bio-indicators. 13. Methods for the determination of BOD, COD, and TOC in fresh water and waste water.

 
Lecturers:
 
  Α. Economou - Amilli Professor of Aquatic Ecosystems Ecology - D. Danielidis Associate Professor on Ecology & Systematics of Microalgae
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Limnology, lake and river ecosystems
Author: R. G. Wetzel - Translation Editor: A. Economou - Amilli
Publisher: E. Kostaraki Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2006
ISBN: 960-87655-6-0
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Laboratory Exercises
Author: D. B. Danielidis
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: Last renewal, September 2012
 
Notes:
 
  Laboratory exercises account for 40% of the final mark. The laboratory mark is the result of an independent practical examination (30%) and the submission of field and lab reports (70%). All marks should be at least "5" (five). Optional seminars are marked independently.
 

8TH SEMESTER

             
Course Title Compulsory/Elective Code Lectures Practiclas Credits ECTS
             

Advanced Biochemistry Topics

Elective

706

4 Hrs/Wk

-

4

5.5

Biotechnology

Elective

806

3 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

4

5.5

DIPLOMA THESIS

Compulsory

801

-

-

7.5

17

Molecular Plant Development

Elective

809

3 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

4

5.0

Plant Ecophysiology

Elective

802

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

5.5

Terrestrial Ecosystems of Greece

Elective

804

4 Hrs/Wk

3 Hrs/Wk

5

5.5

 

DETAILED COURSES CONTENT OF EIGHTH SEMESTER

ADVANCED BIOCHEMISTRY TOPICS

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 706 8th 4 Hrs/Wk - 4 5.5
Syllabus:
 
  A. Translational control: a) Ribosome (6 Hours): Ribosomal RNA - Ribosomal proteins - Assembly of ribosomal components - Peptidyltransferase GTPase. Functional domains. - Regulation at ribosomal level, b) mRNA (6 Hours): Structure and efficiency of translation - Poly (A) – Cap - Cap binding proteins - Degradation of mRNA, c) Initiation factors (2 Hours): Structure and function of eIF-2 - Structure and function of eIF-4, d) Elongation (4 Hours): Elongation factors - Elongation cycle - Regulation at the level of elongation, e) Ribonucleases (2 Hours), f) Chaperons-folding (2 Hours), g) Proteosome (2 Hours).

B. Regulation of translation (6 Hours)

C. Model systems for the regulation at the translational level (22 Hours): Translational regulation by Heme - Translational regulation by Interferon - Translational regulation in developing systems - Translational regulation in the heat shock response - Regulation of protein synthesis elongation by steroid hormone - Regulation of feritin biosynthesis - Regulation by miRNA
 
Lecturers:
 
  E. G. Fragoulis Professor of Biochemistry - One lecture is given by: a) C. E. Vorgias, Professor of Biochemistry, b) D. Vassilacopoulou, Associate Professor in Biochemistry of Eukaryotic Organisms, c) D. C. Sideris Associate Professor in Biochemistry of Eukaryotic Organisms.
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Advanced Biochemistry Topics
Author: E. G. Fragoulis
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2007
 
Notes:
 
   
 

BIOTECHNOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Εlective 806 8th 3 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 4 5.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction  (2 Hours): The history of Biotechnology from ancient times to present and its present state.

Use of microorganisms in Biotechnology (4 Hours): Methods for selecting aerobes and anaerobes, growth and biomass production, batch - fed batch - continuous fermentations, productivity, yields, role of physical and environmental factors.

Industrial and Commercial exploitation of microorganisms (5 Hours): Genetic improvement of bacteria and fungi for the production of value added products using traditional non-GMO technologies or modern genetic engineering.

Fermentation technology (4 Hours): Aerobic - anaerobic fermentations, different types of bioreactors, immobilised cells or enzymes.

Enzyme technology (5 Hours): Industrial enzymes, proteases, lipases, amylases, enzymic biosensors, enzymes used in immuno-diagnosis and disease therapy, protein engineering.

Biotechnology and animals (5 Hours): Use of cell cultures and cell lines, mammalian cell lines, monoclonal antibodies, transgenic animals, gene therapy.

Biotechnology and plants (7 Hours): Tissue cultures, cell cultures, strategies used for the construction of genetically modified and transgenic plants, analysis of transformation methods (physicochemical, biolistic or Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated), applications of transgenic technology, ways to increase safety.

White Biotechnology Products (5 Hours): Products and technologies used in food and drink industry, biofuels and bioethanol, fine chemicals, pharmaceutical products.

Social aspects of Biotechnology (2 Hours): Regulations and biosafety, legal and moral aspects, scientific aspects on the safety of biotechnologically produced food-drugs.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Improvement of Zymomonas mobilis ethanol productivity. Use of different growth conditions and substrates. 2.-5. Molecular cloning: ligation of DNA fragments into plasmid vectors, Escherichia coli transformation with the ligation products, selection of transformed bacteria carrying recombinant plasmid DNA and culture growth, culture cell lysis, plasmid DNA preparation and digestion with restriction enzymes, electrophoresis of digestion products and analysis of results. 6. Bioreactors for continuous culture fermentations. Detecting optimum growth conditions. 7. Detection of microorganisms with strong enzyme activities. 8. Plant protoplast formation. 9. Detecting enzyme activities in commercial detergents..

 
Lecturers:
 
  Μ. Α. Typas Professor of Genetics - Microbial Genetics (Course Co-ordinator) - C. Vorgias Professor of Biochemistry - Α. Karagounis - Kyrtsou Professor of Microbiology - V. Aleporou Associate Professor of Biochemical & Molecular Genetics - D. Hatzinikolaou Assistant Professor of Microbial Biotechnology - K. Pappas Assistant Professor in Genetics - Molecular Microbial Genetics - V. Kouvelis Lecturer of Genetics & Biotechnology
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Biotechnology
Authors: M. Typas, V. Aleporou, S. Kougianou, K. Pappas, A. Karagounis, C. Spyropoulou, D. Hadjinicolaou, C. Vorgias
Publisher:  
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2002
ISBN:  
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Biotechnology Laboratory Notes
Authors: M. Typas, V. Aleporou, K. Komitopoulou, S. Kouyanou, K. Pappas, A. Karagounis, C. Spyropoulou, D. Hadjinicolaou, C. Vorgias
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2011
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical work, obtained from separate examination, contributes 25% to the final mark. Passing marks in both theoretical and practical examinations are required.
 

MOLECULAR PLANT DEVELOPMENT

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 809 8th 3 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 4 5.0
Syllabus:
 
  Introduction (2 Hours): An introduction to flowering plants. Mechanisms in plant development. The role of hormones in molecular plant development. Programmed cell death. The coordination of plant development.

Plant Genomics (9 Hours): Structure of the plant genome. The basic “toolbox” for genomics. Acquisition of information from the genome – genome fragmentation and library construction and analysis. Molecular maps. Molecular marker systems. Genome fractionation.

Molecular Plant Development Methods (9 Hours): Model plants. Obtaining mutants. Forward and reverse genetics. EMS and T-DNA mutagenesis. RNAi and Post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Plant transformation methods. Genetic and phenotypic analysis of mutants. Gene isolation and characterization. Methods for studying gene function. Transgenic plants.

Cell-intrinsic and positional information (3 Hours): Lineage. Laser ablation of cells in Arabidopsis. Green-white-green periclinal chimeras. Relationship between age and position. Mutations and genes affecting the rate of leaf initiation in Arabidopsis.

Embryo development (2 Hours): Early events in embryogenesis. Seed development and maturation. Complexity of gene expression in the embryo. Molecular genetics of embryogenesis. Embryo-lethal mutants. Pattern mutants. Apical-basal axis mutants. Radial axis mutants.

Shoot development (3 Hours): Shoot apical meristem (SAM) organization. Molecular biology and genetics of shoot development. Genes involved in maintaining the proliferative cells in the meristem. Genes that overproduce proliferative cells in the meristem. SAM mutants.

Leaf development (2 Hours): Leave primordial development. Establishment of the axial polarity (asymmetry). Determination of the adaxial and abaxial identity. Development of the leaf margin. The increment of the leaf area (lamina). Genetic control of leaf shape. Development of stomata and leaf trichomes. Molecular genetics and mutants of leaf development.

Flower development (3 Hours): Transition to floral development. Molecular genetic of flower development. Flowering time genes. Meristem identity genes. Floral organ identity genes. The ABC model. Positive regulation of homeotic gene function. Mutants affecting ABC gene function. The role of miRNAs in flower development.

Root development (3 Hours): Root morphology and development. Root apical meristem (RAM). Molecular biology and genetics of root development. Cell fate and cell lineage analysis. The role of positional information. Mutants affecting RAM organization. Molecular genetics and mutants of root hair development.   

MicroRNAs and plant development (2 Hours): Biogenesis, action and biological role of miRNAs. Methods for the functional analysis of miRNAs. The role of miRNAs in plant development. The involvement of miRNAs in leaf, flower, shoot, root and vascular development. The role of miRNAs in the hormonal regulation of plant growth and development.

Environmental factors influencing plant development (2 Hours): Geotropism. Thigmomorphogenesis. Effects of nutritional abnormalities in root development. Vernalization. Thermogenesis - Thermoregulation. Perception of light. Phytochromes. Phytochromes and photomorphogenetic responses. Cryptochromes. Developmental responses to light. Effects on germination. Skoto- and photomorphogenesis. Phototropism. Photoperiodic control of flowering. Case studies of genes and mutations.

The epigenetics of plant development (2 Hours): Some epigenetic phenomena. Structure of chromatin, modifications and regulation of gene expression. Methylation and epigenetic regulation in animal development. Lamarck vs. Darwin. Methylation of DNA. Epigenetic inheritance. RNA-mediated silencing. Zea mays, an exceptionally complex genome with a rich history in epigenetics and evolution. Arabidopsis epigenetics. Histone modifications and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Epigenetic inheritance and evolutionary adaptation.
 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Stable transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, using the floral dip method. 2. Selection of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants, expressing the kanamycin resistance gene, on MS Km50 plates. 3. Agrobacterium mediated transient expression of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) construct in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. 4. Tissue specific (qualitative) analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana plants, expressing the β-glucuronidase marker gene (GUS), by using X-Gluc substrate assays. 5. Quantitative GUS gene expression analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis plants, by using fluorometric enzyme assays.

 
Lecturers:
 
 

Κ. Haralampidis, Assistant Professor of Molecular Plant Development (75%) - Α. Roussis Assistant Professor of Molecular Plant Physiology (25%)

 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Molecular Plant Development
Authors: K. Haralampidis (Editor), D. Milioni, K. Kalantidis, K. Papadopoulou, S. Rigas, A. Roussis, P. Hatzopoulos
Publisher: Embryo Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2009
ISBN: 978-960-8002-46-3
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical work, obtained from separate examination, contributes 20% to the final mark. Passing marks in both theoretical and practical examinations are required.
 

PLANT ECOPHYSIOLOGY

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 802 8th 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 5.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction (2 Hours): What is Ecophysiology - role and importance. Fundamental concepts: adaptation - fitness, strategy - tactics, adaptive mechanisms, natural selection.

The Abiotic Environment of Plants (4 Hours): Solar radiation, adaptive mechanisms in different light environments; temperature, energy balance, soil, inorganic nutrients etc.

Seed and Germination Ecophysiology (8 Hours) Reproduction types, the principle of allocation. Reproductive effort. Seeds - properties, size and quantities. Predispersal hazards, masting. Dispersal: curves, factors, dispersal spectrum. Soil and canopy (aerial) seed banks. Dormancy: types, mechanisms of release, ecological role, evolution. Germination: abiotic factors and adaptive mechanisms.

Ecophysiology of Photosynthesis (4 Hours): The functional importance of the diverse photosynthetic pathways of CO2. assimilation. The biochemical, physiological and ecological framework of the photosynthetic types C3, C4 and CAM. Adaptive pros and cons of each type at different habitats.

Ecophysiology of Mineral Nutrition (6 Hours): Introduction. Mineral nutrients in the soil. Factors that affect acquisition of nutrients (abiotic factors: climatic conditions, soil properties. Biotic factors: root morphology, microorganisms in the soil, biological nitrogen fixation, mycorrhizal associations). Plant nutrient use efficiency (plant nutrient concentration, nutrient productivity and mean residence time, nutrient loss from plants).

Life History and Functional Types (2 Hours): Diverse life history strategies. Growth forms, monocarpy - polycarpy, competitors - tolerants - ruderals. Plant functional types and the decisive importance of certain morphological and physiological traits.

Ecophysiology of Sexual Reproduction (4 Hours): Types of sexual reproduction. Costs and benefits. Reproductive systems and fertility programmes. Sexual incompatibility, sex expression, sex determination. Monoecy - dioecy, gene flow during the successive stages of sexual reproduction.

Ecophysiology of Environmental Stress (12 Hours): On the etymology of stress. Water flow in plant species. Water efficiency. Water availability and plant productivity. Salinity stress. High temperature. Low temperature. Plant response to environmental stress. Genes in the field.

Ecophysiological Role of Secondary Metabolites (6 Hours): Introduction. The principal groups of secondary metabolites, the major pathways of their biosynthesis and interrelationships with primary metabolism. Secondary compounds and plant defence (terpenes, phenolic compounds, alkaloids). Defence against abiotic factors (temperature, drought, ultraviolet radiation). Plant responses to abiotic factors. Chemical defence against biotic factors (herbivores, microorganisms). Allelopathy. Role of secondary metabolites in pollination and seed dispersal.

Ecophysiology of Threatened Plants - Conservation Biology (4 Hours): Plant diversity with emphasis on the Greek flora. Rarity, extinction, invasion of alien species. Reproductive biology of rare and threatened species. Management and protection of threatened species. Restoration projects. In situ and ex situ plant conservation.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Climate and meteorological data analysis. 2. Instruments and methodology for environment factor monitoring (light and temperature). 3. Postfire regeneration - emergence and survival of seedlings. 4. Regulatory mechanisms of seed germination in the field - soil seed bank. 5. Influence of water and salinity stress on seedling development. 6. Effect of the nutrient solution pH on seedling growth. 7.-10. Short research project (4 week-long, student group work, on a specific topic selected from a list of suggested ones).

 
Lecturers:
 
  C. Α. Thanos Professor of Plant Physiology - Κ. Georghiou Associate Professor of Plant Physiology - S. Rhizopoulou Associate Professor of Plant Ecophysiology - Μ. S. Meletiou - Christou Lecturer of Plant Physiology
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Plant Ecophysiology
Authors: K. Georghiou, C. Thanos, S. Meletiou - Christou, S. Rhizopoulou
Publisher: Diavlos Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2010
ISBN: 978-960-531-233-6
 
Τίτλος: Stress Plant Physiology: The functions of plants under adverse conditions
Author: G. Karabourniotis
Publisher: Embryo Publications
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2003
ISBN: 960-8002-14-1
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Plant Ecophysiology Laboratory Exercises
Authors: C. Thanos, K. Georghiou, S. Rhizopoulou, S. Meletiou - Christou
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year:  
 
Notes:
 
  The mark of the practical work, obtained from separate examination, contributes 50% to the final mark. Passing marks in both theoretical and practical examinations are required.
 

TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS OF GREECE

Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 804 8th 4 Hrs/Wk 3 Hrs/Wk 5 5.5
Syllabus:
 
 

Introduction (5 Hours): Evolution of the Greek landscape in the geological time. Climatology and geology of Greece. Habitat types of Greece.

The diversity of the terrestrial flora of Greece (8 Hours): Flora and vegetation. Phytogeography of Greece. The structure of the Greek flora. Native and alien flora of Greece. Geoelements. Endemism. Distribution ranges, Chorology. Status, threats and conservation of the Greek flora. Legislation.

The diversity of the terrestrial fauna of Greece (2 Hours): Zoogeography. Diversity of the Greek fauna. Native and alien species. Endemism. Distribution ranges, Chorology. Status, threats and conservation of the Greek fauna. Legislation.

The terrestrial environment of Greece in time and space: taxa differentiation in the Greek islands (8 Hours): The Hellenic environment since Meiocene, peculiarities of fauna and flora of the Greek islands and differentiation of characteristic taxa.

The diversity of the terrestrial ecosystems of Greece (6 Hours): Mediterranean ecosystems (phrygana, maquis, pine forests). Plant adaptations to water stress. Plant productivity. Nutrient pools and nutrient cycling. Consumers. Decomposers. Fire as an ecological factor. Plant and animal diversity in the Mediterranean ecosystems. Threats. Conservation and Management.

Mountainous Forests (3 Hours): Coniferous and Deciduous Forests. Distribution, structure and function. Plant and animal diversity in the mountain ecosystems. Threats. Conservation and Management.

Alpine ecosystems (3 Hours): Distribution, structure and function. Plant and animal diversity in the alpine ecosystems. Threats. Conservation and Management.

Ecotones and Coastal ecosystems (6 Hours): Distribution, structure and function. Plant and animal diversity in the coastal ecosystems. Threats. Conservation and Management.

Specific issues of Conservation and management (2 Hours): Networks of protected areas. Environmental awareness. Environmental legislation.

 
Practicals:
 
 

1. Soil moisture and soil water holding capacity (field – laboratory). 2. Soil pH (field – laboratory). 3. Soil organic matter (field – laboratory). 4. Soil texture (field – laboratory). 5. Plant biometrics:  I & II tree height measurement, (field). 6. Age structure of plant population (field). 7. Plant life forms and chorology (field and laboratory). 8. Vegetation structure analysis: the Braun-Blanquet phytosoiciological method. 9. Species – area relationship in plants: community heterogeneity and species richness (field – laboratory). 10. Species – area relationship in soil edaphic fauna (field). 11. Identification of animal tracks (field – laboratory). 12. Vertical structure of the soil fauna along the soil profile (field & laboratory). 13. Bird watching and counting (field). 14. Analysis of ecological data – ordination methods (laboratory). 15. Analysis of ecological data - Ecological Models (laboratory)..

Field exercises are performed in an obligatory 3-day trip..

 
Lecturers:
 
  Μ. Arianoutsou - Faragitaki Professor of Ecology & Terrestrial Ecosystems - Th. Constantinidis Assistant Professor of Systematic Botany - Α. Parmakelis Assistant Professor of Biodiversity and Population Ecology
 
Suggested Textbooks:
 
Title: Terrestrial Ecosystems of Greece (Textbook)
Authors: M. Arianoutsou, A. Gianitsaros, L. Koumpli, A. Parmakelis
Publisher:  
Publication Place & Year: Athens, 2010
ISBN:  
 
Lab Manuals:
 
Title: Laboratory Exercises
Author: M. Arianoutsou (Editor)
Publication Place: Athens
Publication Year: 2012
 
Notes:
 
  The reports in the practical exercises contribute to the final mark by 20%. Similarly, the passing mark in the examination of the practical exercises contributes to the final mark by 20%.  Optional seminars organized by the students and presented to the class may provide a credit up to 1 grade.