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Compulsory/Elective Code Semester Lectures Practicals Credits ECTS
Elective 13Β037 6th 3 Hrs/Wk  3 Hrs/Wk 4 5,5

The course deals with: a) the diversity of the physiological systems of the various taxa within the framework of their fitness in the different habitats; b) the  differentiations  occurring within the same habitat due to the different impact of abiotic and biotic factors of the environment; c) the understanding the concept of adaptation and the factors affecting it; d) the role of natural selection through specific examples of physiological processes; and e) the concept of  intergrate physiology and importance of the inreraction of physiological processes leading to the harmonious functioning of the organisms or in other words the ways in which homeostasis is achieved.

The laboratory exercises concern: a) the learning of specialized methods, b) the application of the methodologies learned by the student in the main course of study, c) through simulation programs the study of procedures that can not be taught within a three hours of the practical classe  and d) the methodology for recording, processing, analyzing and presenting laboratory data.


With the successful completion of the course, the student is expected to: a) have a good understanding of the physiological processes of the animals, b) be able to understand the differences in individual physiological processes, c) look for the causes of these variations , d) have a competent and remarkable ability to choose the organizations to study a physiological problem, e) be able to make comparative studies between the taxa, f) have a good knowledge of the methods used for the studies of the comperative-enviromental- evolutionary physiology g) combine information on physiological responses of the organisms; h) record analyzing and evaluating data; and (i) to have a good understanding of “How the animals work"


Introductory concepts, Historical review, Physiological convergence, New approaches - External environment, Comparative method - Plasticity of physiological responses - Physiological limits, Physiological strategies - Conservation physiology - Metabolism and energy production, Metabolic rhythm and its peculiarities - Effect of size - - Water economy in animals, Strategies, Mechanisms – Osmoregulation , Excretory systems, Nitrogen byproducts elimination - Thermoregulation - Breathing - Circulatory systems – Neurus system - Sensory physiology - Movement and muscular systems - Digestive system - Endocrine systems - Comparative Immunology.


1. Hormones and color in the frog - 2-3.Bioenergetics-Quantify of ATP, I & II -4. Cell Transport Mechanism and Permeability - 5. Cardiovascular dynamics and Cardiovascular Physiology (Vertebrates) - 6. Mechanisms of maintenance of acid-base balance of the cell - 7. Comparative hematology - 8. Comparative immunology

  Lectures: Efstratios ValakosProfessor of Comparative Animal Physiology - Ecophysiology (Coordinator) - Spiros Efthimiopoulos, Professor of Animal & Human Physiology - Neurobiology -Ourania E. Tsitsilonis, Professor of Immunology - Panagiota Papazafiri, Associate Professor of Animal Physiology - Ioanna-Katerina Aggeli, Assistant Professor of Animal Physiology
  Practicals: Efstratios Valakos, Professor of Comparative Animal Physiology - Ecophysiology (Coordinator) - Spiros Efthimiopoulos, Professor of Animal & Human Physiology - Neurobiology -Ourania E. Tsitsilonis, Professor of Immunology - Panagiota Papazafiri, Associate Professor of Animal Physiology - Ioanna-Katerina Aggeli, Assistant Professor of Animal Physiology - Dr A. Marmari (Laboratory Teaching Staff) - Dr. A. Foteinopoulou (Laboratory Teaching Staff) - Dr. S. Papavasileiou (Laboratory Teaching Staff)

There are no prerequisites for the student to choose and attend the course.

The course is offered to Erasmus students: Teaching in Greek language - Exams in English language.

The evaluation process is carried out in Greek language (there is the possibility in English for Erasmus students), with a final written examination of the whole course. The average grade of Laboratory Exercises contributes 30% to the final, total, course grade.

  If you require more information, please contact the Course Coordinator, Prof. E. Valakos at: Tel: 0030 210 727 4376 – Εmail: evalakos[at]biol.uoa[dot]gr